warts%20-%20cutaneous
WARTS - CUTANEOUS
Cutaneous warts, also called verrucae, are benign proliferations of skin caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).
Most common warts on the hands and feet are due to HPV types 1, 2, 4, 27 & 57.
HPV is usually transmitted by contact with skin of an infected individual or by transmission of virus living in warm moist environment.
Autoinoculation may occur from traumatizing lesions by biting or scratching.
Incubation period is unknown but may range from months to years.
  1. American Academy of Dermatology Association. Practice management: guidelines of care for warts: human papillomavirus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995;32:98-103
  2. Bacelieri R, Johnson SM. Cutaneous Warts: an evidenced based approach. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72:72-74. PMID: 16127954
  3. Micali G, Nasca MR, Tedeschi A, et al. Use of squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) for cutaneous warts in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2000;17:315-318. PMID: 10990585
  4. Gibbs S, Harvey I, Sterling J,et al. Local treatments for cutaneous warts: systematic review. BMJ. 2002;325:1-8. PMID: 12202325
  5. Lipke MM. An armamentarium of warts treatments. Clin Med Res. 2006;4:273-293. PMID: 17210977
  6. Phillips RC, Ruhl TS, Pfenninger JL, et al. Treatment of warts with Candida antigen injection. Arch dermatol. 2000;136:1274-1275. PMID: 11030787
  7. Plasencia JM. Cutaneous warts: Diagnosis and treatment. Prim Care. 2000;27:423-434. PMID: 10815052
  8. Mulhem E, Pinelis S. Treatment of nongenital cutaneous warts. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84:288-293. Accessed 17 Sep 2013. PMID: 21842775
  9. Silverberg NB, Lim JK, Paller AS, et al. Squaric acid immunotherapy for warts in children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42:803. PMID: 10775858
  10. Stulberg DL, Hutchinson AG. Molluscum contagiosum and warts. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67:1233-1240. PMID: 12674451
  11. Sterling JC, Handfield-Jones S, Hudson PM; British Association of Dermatologists. Guidelines for the management of cutaneous warts. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144:004-11. PMID: 11167676
  12. Workowski KA, Berman S, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines 2002. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2002 May;51:001-78. PMID: 12184549
  13. MedWorm http://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Dermatology/12/ http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Dermatology-News.xml
  14. Rinker MH. Warts, nongenital. eMedicine. http://emedicine.com. Sep 2005.
  15. Goldstein BG, Goldstein AO. Cutaneous warts. eMedicine. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/cutaneous-warts. Apr 2013. Accessed 17 Sep 2013
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Pearl Toh, 6 days ago
Every-two-month injections of the long-acting cabotegravir + rilpivirine were noninferior to once-monthly injections for virologic suppression at 48 weeks in people living with HIV*, according to the ATLAS-2M** study presented at CROI 2020 — thus providing a potential option with more convenient dosing.
Stephen Padilla, 19 Mar 2020
The assumption that children are less vulnerable to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared to adults is not quite true and may even be dangerous, suggests a recent study.
22 Mar 2020
Sustained use of lopinavir-combined regimen appears to confer benefits among patients with the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), with improvement possibly indicated by increasing eosinophils, suggests a recent study.
24 Mar 2020
COVID-19 is a novel disease, with no existing immunity. The virus can be transmitted from person to person, quickly and exponentially. Here’s what we can do to slow down the spread, if not contain the outbreak.