Vitamin D deficiency is a condition wherein there is low circulating levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D is an essential steroid hormone found in the body.

It results from inadequate sunlight exposure, malabsorptions &/or inadequate nutrition.

Vitamin D insufficiency is a less severe state of calcidiol deficiency and associated w/ parathyroid hormones and osteoporosis.


Vitamin D Deficiency References

  1. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, et al; Endocrine Society. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul;96(7):1911-1930. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-0385. PMID: 21646368
  2. Asiedu D. Vitamin D Deficiency. In: Ferri, F F. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2018. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, Inc; 2018. :1366-1367.
  3. Dawson-Hughes, B. Vitamin D deficiency in adults: Definition, clinical manifestations, and treatment. UpToDate.
  4. Demay M, Krane S. Chapter 71 - Disorders of Mineralization. In: Larry J, De Groot L, de Krester D, et al. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.; 2016. :1230-1243.e4.
  5. Escobar O, Viswanathan P, Witchel S. 9 - Pediatric Endocrinology. In: Zitelli B, McIntire S, Nowalk A. Zitelli and Davis' Atlas of Pediatric Physical Diagnosis. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.; 2018. :341-377.
  6. Mestman J. Chapter 42 - Thyroid and Parathyroid Diseases in Pregnancy. In: Gabbe S, Niebyl J, Simpson J, et al. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 7th ed; 2017. :910-937.e6.
  7. Misra M. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in children and adolescents. UpToDate.
  8. Moe S, Sprague S. 55 - Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral Bone Disorder. In: Skorecki K, Chertow G, Marsden P, et al. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 10th ed; 2016. :1822-1853.38.
  9. NHS. Vitamin D deficiency – clinical guidelines for adults. NHS.
  10. Pettifor J, Thandrayen K, Thacher T. Chapter 67 - Vitamin D Deficiency and Nutritional Rickets in Children. In: David F. Vitamin D, Volume II: Health, Disease and Therapeutics. 4th ed; 2018. :179-201.
  11. Smogorzewski M, Stubbs J, Yu A. 19 - Disorders of Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphate Balance. In: Skorecki K, Chertow G, Marsden P, et al. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 10th ed; 2016. :601-635.e10.
  12. Weinstein R. 244 - Osteomalacia And Rickets. In: Goldman L, Schafer A. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.; 2016. :1645-1649.e2.
  13. World Health Organization. Guideline: Vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women. World Health Organization. 2012.
  14. Wagner CL, Greer FR; American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008 Nov;122(5):1142-1152. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1862. PMID: 18977996
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