vitamin%20d%20deficiency
VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY

Vitamin D deficiency is a condition wherein there is low circulating levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D is an essential steroid hormone found in the body.

It results from inadequate sunlight exposure, malabsorptions &/or inadequate nutrition.

Vitamin D insufficiency is a less severe state of calcidiol deficiency and associated w/ parathyroid hormones and osteoporosis.

 

Vitamin D Deficiency References

  1. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, et al; Endocrine Society. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jul;96(7):1911-1930. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-0385. PMID: 21646368
  2. Asiedu D. Vitamin D Deficiency. In: Ferri, F F. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2018. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, Inc; 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-28049-5.00884-9. :1366-1367.
  3. Dawson-Hughes, B. Vitamin D deficiency in adults: Definition, clinical manifestations, and treatment. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/.
  4. Demay M, Krane S. Chapter 71 - Disorders of Mineralization. In: Larry J, De Groot L, de Krester D, et al. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.; 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-18907-1.00071-8. :1230-1243.e4.
  5. Escobar O, Viswanathan P, Witchel S. 9 - Pediatric Endocrinology. In: Zitelli B, McIntire S, Nowalk A. Zitelli and Davis' Atlas of Pediatric Physical Diagnosis. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.; 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-39303-4.00009-8. :341-377.
  6. Mestman J. Chapter 42 - Thyroid and Parathyroid Diseases in Pregnancy. In: Gabbe S, Niebyl J, Simpson J, et al. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 7th ed; 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-32108-2.00042-1. :910-937.e6.
  7. Misra M. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in children and adolescents. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/.
  8. Moe S, Sprague S. 55 - Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral Bone Disorder. In: Skorecki K, Chertow G, Marsden P, et al. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 10th ed; 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4557-4836-5.00055-2. :1822-1853.38.
  9. NHS. Vitamin D deficiency – clinical guidelines for adults. NHS. http://www.westcheshireccg.nhs.uk/document_uploads/Guidelines/vitamindguideline_adultskrv2.0_15jun18.pdf.
  10. Pettifor J, Thandrayen K, Thacher T. Chapter 67 - Vitamin D Deficiency and Nutritional Rickets in Children. In: David F. Vitamin D, Volume II: Health, Disease and Therapeutics. 4th ed; 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809963-6.00067-5. :179-201.
  11. Smogorzewski M, Stubbs J, Yu A. 19 - Disorders of Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphate Balance. In: Skorecki K, Chertow G, Marsden P, et al. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 10th ed; 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4557-4836-5.00019-9. :601-635.e10.
  12. Weinstein R. 244 - Osteomalacia And Rickets. In: Goldman L, Schafer A. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.; 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4557-5017-7.00244-0. :1645-1649.e2.
  13. World Health Organization. Guideline: Vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/. 2012.
  14. Wagner CL, Greer FR; American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008 Nov;122(5):1142-1152. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1862. PMID: 18977996
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS JPOG - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
02 Apr 2019
Using preventive zinc and micronutrient powder supplementation does not appear to improve growth in children, a recent study has found.
Roshini Claire Anthony, 28 Sep 2020

A 4-week course of amoxicillin-clavulanate in children with protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) does not improve cough resolution rates compared with a 2-week course, according to a study from Australia. However, the longer course may significantly extend time to first cough exacerbation.