Vitamin D deficiency is a condition wherein there is low circulating levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D is an essential steroid hormone found in the body.

It results from inadequate sunlight exposure, malabsorptions &/or inadequate nutrition.

Vitamin D insufficiency is a less severe state of calcidiol deficiency and associated w/ parathyroid hormones and osteoporosis.


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  4. Demay M, Krane S. Chapter 71 - Disorders of Mineralization. In: Larry J, De Groot L, de Krester D, et al. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.; 2016. :1230-1243.e4.
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