Vertigo is having a sensation of spinning of either the surrounding or within oneself but physical movement does not exist.

It may be secondary to different causes that may be determined by numerous factors eg timing and duration, aggravating conditions or associated symptoms.
Central vertigo originates from the central nervous system (brainstem or cerebellum). It is uncommon but more serious and should be ruled out immediately.
Peripheral vertigo originates from the labyrinth or vestibular nerve.

Vertigo References

  1. Fife TD. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Oct 15, 2009. Semin Neurol. 2009 Nov;29(5):500-508. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1241041. Accessed 22 Mar 2012. PMID: 19834861
  2. Bhattacharyya N, Baugh RF, Orvidas L, et al; American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Clinical practice guideline: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008 Nov;139(5)(Suppl 4):S47-S81. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2008.08.022. PMID: 18973840
  3. Fife TD, Iverson DJ, Lempert T, et al. Practice parameter: therapies for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (an evidence-based review): report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2008 May;70(22):2067-2074. doi: 10.1212/ PMID: 18505980
  4. Guerraz M, Yardley L, Bertholon P, et al. Visual vertigo: symptom assessment, spatial orientation and postural control. Brain. 2001 Aug;124(8):1646-1656. PMID: 11459755
  5. Kuo CH, Pang L, Chang R. Vertigo - part 2 - management in general practice. Aust Fam Physician. 2008 Jun;37(6):409-413. PMID: 18523693
  6. Kuo CH, Pang L, Chang R. Vertigo - part 1 - assessment in general practice. Aust Fam Physician. 2008 May;37(5):341-347. PMID: 18464964
  7. Labaguen RH. Initial evaluation of vertigo. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Jan;73(2):244-251. PMID: 16445269
  8. Wuyts F. Principle of the head impulse (thrust) test or Halmagyi head thrust test (HHTT). B-ENT. 2008;4(Suppl 8):23-25
  9. Swartz R, Longwell P. Treatment of vertigo. Am Fam Physician. 2005 May;71(6):1115-1122. PMID: 15791890
  10. Olshaker JS. Dizziness and vertigo. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby, Elsevier; 2009
  11. Budoin KS. The testing and treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. In: Weber PC. Vertigo and disequilibrium, a practical guide to diagnosis and management. New York: Thieme medical publishers Inc; 2008.
  12. Weber PC. Vertigo and disequilibrium. a practical guide to diagnosis and management. New York: Thieme medical publishers Inc; 2008
  13. MedWorm
  14. MedWorm
  15. Bowdler D, Faulconbridge RL. Dizziness and vertigo. ENT UK- The British Association of Otolaryngologists - Head and Neck Surgeons. 2011. Accessed 28 Feb 2012.
  16. Furman JM, Barton J. Approach to patient with vertigo. UpToDate. 10 Feb 2011. Accessed 06 Mar 2012.
  17. Dinces E, Rauch S. Meniere disease. UpToDate. 14 Jul 2011. Accessed 02 Mar 2012.
  18. Knott L. Labyrinthitis. Patient UK. 16 Jul 2010. Accessed 02 Mar 2012.
  19. Mayo Clinic. Meniere's disease. Mayo Clinic. Accessed 15 Mar 2012.
  20. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. NIDCD fact sheet: Meniere’s disease. Jul 2010.
  21. Furman JM, Barton J. Vestibular neuritis. UpToDate. 06 Jul 2010. Accessed 06 Mar 2012.
  22. Furman JM, Barton J. Treatment of vertigo. UpToDate. 09 Jun 2011. Accessed 06 Mar 2012.
  23. Knott L. Vestibular neuritis. Patient UK. 16 Jul 2010. Accessed 06 Mar 2012.
  24. Dispenza F, De Stefano A. Textbook of vertigo diagnosis and management. 1st ed. India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd; 2014:223.
  25. Taghdiri F, Togha M, Razeghi Jahromi S, et al. Cinnarizine for the prophylaxis of migraine associated vertigo: a retrospective study. Springerplus. 2014 May 7;3:231. doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-231. PMID: 24834377
  26. Teggi R, Gatti O, Sykopetrites V, et al. Association of cinnarizine and betahistine in prophylactic therapy for Ménière’s disease with and without migraine. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2014 Oct;34(5):349-353. Accessed 15 Oct 2015. PMID: 25709150
  27. Alyono JC. Vertigo and dizziness. The Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. 2018;51(4):725-740.
  28. Furman JM. Pathophysiology, etiology and differential diagnosis of vertigo. UpToDate. Aug 2018.
  29. Moscowitz HS, Dinces EA. Meniere's disease. UpToDate. Aug 2018.
  30. Bhattacharyya N, Gubbels SP, Schwartz SR, et al. Clinical practice guideline: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (update). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 Mar;156(Suppl 3):1-47. doi: 10.1177/0194599816689667. PMID: 28248609
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Dec 2020
Tetanus toxoid 5 Lf, diphtheria toxoid 2 Lf, pertussis toxoid 2.5 mcg, filamentous haemagglutinin 5 mcg, fimbriae types 2 and 3 5 mcg, pertactin 3 mcg
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa, 08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
Pearl Toh, 26 Nov 2020
Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) should be the mainstay of long-term asthma management — such is the key message of the latest Singapore ACE* Clinical Guidance (ACG) for asthma, released in October 2020.
Audrey Abella, 6 days ago
A pilot telemedicine initiative may be an alternative for facilitating delivery of intravenous iron (IVI) for individuals requiring iron supplementation.