varicella-zoster%20virus%20infection
VARICELLA-ZOSTER VIRUS INFECTION
Varicella, also known as chickenpox, is a self-limited benign disease caused by primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection characterized by fever, malaise, and generalized pruritic vesicular rash.
The average incubation period is 14-16 days. It is transmitted via direct contact with vesicular fluid or inhalation of aerosolized respiratory secretions or via droplet route during face-to-face contact.
Hallmark sign is pruritic rash that begins in the scalp and face which eventually spreads to the trunks and extremities.

Differential Diagnosis

Varicella

  • Other skin eruptions that may be confused with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection
    • Viral exanthems, impetigo, insect bites, scabies, erythema multiforme, papular urticaria, drug eruption, hand-foot-mouth disease, disseminated herpes zoster and other vesicular dermatoses which may appear with the same diffused rash typical of varicella

Herpes Zoster

  • Pain experienced with herpes zoster is often misdiagnosed as myocardial infarction (MI), pleurisy, cholecystitis, appendicitis, duodenal ulcer, ovarian cyst, herniated intervertebral disc, thrombophlebitis, renal or biliary colic
  • Zoster rash may be confused with impetigo, contact dermatitis, folliculitis, scabies, insect bites, urticaria, candidal infection, dermatitis herpetiformis, eczema herpeticum, drug eruptions
  • Zoster sine herpete
    • Dermatomal pain with positive serologic and virologic evidence but without rash
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Infectious Diseases - Malaysia digital copy today!
DOWNLOAD
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Apr 2013
Aspergillus colonization may lead to an increase in the risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. This study determined the impact of colonization of conidia Aspergillus species after post lung transplantation.
2 days ago
No standard currently exists for the growing number of patients with multidrug-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori, but a recent study has shown the safety and reliability of a 12-day low-dose rifabutin/high-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) regimen in patients infected with triple-resistant strains.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 16 Aug 2017
Daily administration of two probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, does not appear to be effective in the prevention of respiratory or gastrointestinal infections in infants, as shown in the ProbiComp* study.
4 days ago
Patients with a first episode of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are likely to respond to treatment with fidaxomicin with no recurrences, a recent study has shown. On the other hand, those with prior CDI episodes are less likely to respond, especially with >1 prior episode, and more likely to recur, which suggests a greater clinical benefit of fidaxomicin earlier in the course of CDI.