varicella-zoster%20virus%20infection%20(pediatric)
VARICELLA-ZOSTER VIRUS INFECTION (PEDIATRIC)
Varicella, also known as chickenpox, is a self-limited, benign disease caused by primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection characterized by fever, malaise, and generalized pruritic vesicular rash.
The average incubation period is 14-16 days. It is transmitted via direct contact with vesicular fluid or inhalation of aerosolized respiratory secretions or via droplet route during face to face contact.
Hallmark sign is pruritic rash that begins in the scalp and face which eventually spreads to the trunks and extremities.

Differential Diagnosis

Varicella

  • Other skin eruptions that may be confused with varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection:
    • Viral exanthems, impetigo, insect bites, scabies, erythema multiforme, papular urticaria, drug eruption, hand-foot-mouth disease, disseminated herpes zoster & other vesicular dermatoses which may appear with the same diffused rash typical of varicella

Herpes Zoster

  • Pain experienced with herpes zoster is often misdiagnosed as myocardial infarction (MI), pleurisy, cholecystitis, appendicitis, duodenal ulcer, herniated intervertebral disc, thrombophlebitis, ovarian cyst, renal or biliary colic
  • Zoster sine
    • Dermatomal pain, with positive serologic & virological evidence but without rash
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21 Mar 2018
During the Kuala Lumpur International Neonatology Conference held in conjunction with the World Prematurity Day 2017, Dato Dr Musa Mohd Nordin spoke on the importance of immunizing children with the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine. He highlighted the role of Hexaxim® as a fully liquid, ready-to-use, 6-in-1 (including hepatitis B) vaccine for the primary and booster vaccinations of infants and toddlers. Meanwhile, Dr Yong Junina Fadzil discussed the benefits of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) in providing children with broader protection against influenza B viruses.