Urolithiasis-related obstructive uropathy exerts the worst effect on renal outcome in patients with acute kidney disease (AKI), a study has found. Acute pyelonephritis (APN) and elapsed time to release the obstruction are also associated with poor prognosis.
Men who undergo flexible cystoscopy, particularly with a longer dwell time, may benefit from intraurethral lidocaine as it provides significant pain reduction, suggest the results of a meta-analysis. Evidence is lacking for other tested interventions.
Inhibitors against programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) provide comparable survival benefits in patients with platinum-resistant metastatic urothelial cancer, reports a recent meta-analysis.