Urolithiasis is the formation of urinary stones in the kidney, bladder and/or urethra.

The hallmark of obstruction in the ureter and renal pelvis is the sudden onset of excruciating, intermittent pain that radiates from the flank to the groin or to the genital area and inner thigh.

It is a painful urologic disorder that occurs in 12% of the global population and has a high recurrence rate among male patients.

Lower urinary tract symptoms that are associated with urolithiasis are urgency, frequency, urge incontinence and dysuria.


Urolithiasis References

  1. American Urological Association. Medical management of kidney stones: AUA guideline. AUA. https://www.auanet.org/common/pdf/ education/clinical-guidance/Medical-Management-of-Kidney-Stones.pdf. Mar 2014.
  2. Damasio P, Amaro C, Padovani C, et al. Influence of clinical therapy and nutritional counseling on the recurrence of urolithiasis. Acta Cir. Bras. 2014 Jun;29(6):400-404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-86502014000600009. PMID: 24919050
  3. Denburg M, Leonard M, Haynes K, et al. Risk of fracture in urolithiasis: a population-based cohort study using the health improvement network. CJASN. 2014 Dec;9(12):2133-2140. doi: 10.2215/CJN.04340514. Accessed 31 Aug 2015. PMID: 25341724
  4. Emokpae MA, Gadzama AA. Anatomical distribution and biochemical composition of urolithiasis in Kano, northern Nigeria. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2012 Jun;6(3):1158-1166. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijbcs.
  5. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on urolithiasis. EAU. http://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/EAU-Guidelines-Urolithiasis-2015-v2.pdf.
  6. Freitas Junior CH, Mazzucchi E, Danilovic A, et al. Metabolic assessment of elderly men with urolithiasis. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67(5):457-461. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2012(05)09. Accessed 31 Aug 2015. PMID: 22666789
  7. Hydration for Health. Water intake and kidney stones. http://www.h4hinitiative.com/h4h-academy/hydration-lab/water-intake-and-kidney-stones/introduction.
  8. Knoll T, Schubert A, Fahlenkamp D, et al. Urolithiasis through the ages: data on more than 200,000 urinary stone analyses. J Urol. 2011 Apr;185(4):1304-1311. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.11.073. PMID: 21334658
  9. Institute for the Study of Urologic Diseases. Urolithiasis. ISUD. http://www.imop.gr/en/uroinfo-urolithiasis%23.
  10. Kok D. Metaphylaxis, diet and lifestyle in stone disease. Arab Journal of Urology. 2012 Mar;10:240-249. doi: 10.1016/j.aju.2012.03.003.
  11. Kustov AV, Strelnikov AI, Airapetyan AO, et al. New step-by-step algorithms for diagnosis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis based on a qualitative mineralogical composition of calculi. Clin Nephrol Urol Sci. 2015;2(3):002-5. doi: 10.7243/2054-7161-2-3.
  12. Moe OW, Pearle MS, Shakhaee K. Pharmacotherapy of urolithiasis: evidence from clinical trials. Kidney Int. 2011 Feb;79(4):385-392. doi: 10.1038/ki.2010.389. PMID: 20927039
  13. Patel D, Patel U. Urolithiasis: the role of imaging. Trends Urology & Men’s Health. May-Jun 2012. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tre.265/epdf. Accessed 31 Aug 2015
  14. Otunctemur A, Ozbek E, Cakir SS, et al. Urolithiasis is associated with low testosterone level in men. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2015;87(1):83-86. doi: 10.4081/aiua.2015.1.83.
  15. Singh K, Sailo S. Understanding epidemiology and etiologic factors of urolithiasis: an overview. Sci Vis. 2013 Oct-Dec;13(4):169-174. http://oaji.net/articles/2014/1315-1413290226.pdf.
  16. Vijaya T, Kumar S, Ramarao NV, et al. Urolithiasis and its causes – short review. J Phyto. 2013;2(3):001-6.
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