Urinary tract infection (UTI) is complicated if the UTI is associated with factors that increases colonization and decreases therapy efficacy. Factors may include one or all of the following: Structural or functional abnormalities of the genitourinary tract; presence of an underlying disease that interferes with host defense mechanisms or the patient being immunocompromised; and being infected by a multi-drug resistant bacteria.
Principles of therapy includes effective antimicrobial antimicrobial therapy, optimal management of the underlying abnormalities or other diseases & adequate life-supporting measures.

Urinary Tract Infection - Complicated References

  1. Drekonja DM, Johnson JR. Urinary tract infections. Prim Care. 2008 Jun;35(2):345-367. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=18486719. PMID: 18486719
  2. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. ICSI healthcare guideline: uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women, 10th ed. 2006 Jul:1-21. http://www.icsi.org. Accessed 10 Sep 2012
  3. Infectious Diseases Society of the Republic of China, Medical Foundation in Memory of Dr. Deh Lin-Cheng, Foundation of Professor Wei-Chuan Hsien for Infectious Diseases Research and Education, Lee CY's Research Foundation for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccine. Guidelines for antimicrobial therapy of urinary tract infections in Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2000 Dec;33(4):271-272. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=11269375. PMID: 11269375
  4. Neal DE Jr. Complicated urinary tract infections. Urol Clin North Am. 2008 Feb;35(1):13-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18061020. PMID: 18061020
  5. Orenstein R, Wong ES. Urinary tract infections in adults. Am Fam Physician. 1999 Mar;59(5):1225-1234, 1237. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10088877. PMID: 10088877
  6. Naber KG, Bergman B, Bishop MC, et al for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Working Group of the Health Care Office (HCO) of the European Association of Urology (EAU). EAU guidelines for the management of urinary and male genital tract infections. Eur Urol. 2001 Nov;40(5):576-588. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=11752870. PMID: 11752870
  7. Rubenstein JN, Schaeffer AJ. Managing complicated urinary tract infections: the urologic view. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2003 Jun;17(2):333-351. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=12848473. PMID: 12848473
  8. Task Force on UTI 2003-04, Philippine Practice Guidelines Group in Infectious Diseases. Urinary tract infections in adults: clinical practice guidelines update 2004. PPGG-ID Philippine Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 2004;1(1). http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu.
  9. Nicolle LE. Complicated urinary infection, including postsurgical and catheter-related infections. In: Cohen J, Powderly WG, Berkley SF, et al. Cohen and Powderly: Infectious diseases. 2nd. Edinburgh: Mosby; 2004.
  10. Sobel JD, Kaye D. Urinary tract infections. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Inc; 2005.
  11. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/OBGYN/29/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/OBGYN.xml
  12. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  13. Ministry of Health Singapore. Clinical practice guidelines: use of antibiotics in urinary tract infections. MOH (Singapore). http://www.moh.gov.sg. Jan 2002.
  14. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of suspected bacterial urinary tract infection in adults. SIGN. www.sign.ac.uk. Jul 2006.
  15. Hooton TM. Acute complicated cystitis and pyelonephritis. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. 30 May 2014.
  16. Ministry of Health Malaysia. National antibiotic guideline 2014, 2nd edition. Pharmaceutical Services Divisions, Ministry of Health Malaysia. http://www.pharmacy.gov.my. Dec 2014. Accessed 16 Jul 2015.
  17. Grabe M, Bartoletti R, Bjerklund Johansen TE, et al. Guidelines on urological infections. European Association of Urology. http://uroweb.org. Mar 2015. Accessed 28 Oct 2015.
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