Urinary tract infection (UTI) is complicated if the UTI is associated
with factors that increases colonization and decreases therapy
efficacy. Factors may include one or all of the following: Structural or
functional abnormalities of the genitourinary tract; presence of an
underlying disease that interferes with host defense mechanisms or the
patient being immunocompromised; and being infected by a multi-drug
Principles of therapy includes effective antimicrobial antimicrobial therapy, optimal management of the underlying
abnormalities or other diseases & adequate life-supporting measures.
Hepatitis D virus infection is highly prevalent in subgroups of individuals with intravenous drug use and those with high-risk sexual behaviour, study has reported. Its prevalence has also increased twofold over time in patients infected with hepatitis B virus.
The nucleotide analogue tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is associated with mild renal impairment in a minority of patients being treated for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a study by the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) has shown.