Urinary incontinence is the complaint of involuntary urine leakage.
Stress urinary incontinence is the involuntary urine leakage on effort or exertion or when coughing or sneezing.
Urge urinary incontinence is the one associated with or immediately preceded by urgency.
Mixed urinary incontinence is the involuntary urine leakage associated with both urgency and with exertion, effort, coughing or sneezing.
Thuroff J, Abrams P, Andersson KE, et al. European Association of Urology. Guidelines on urinary incontinence. http://www.uroweb.org. Mar 2005.
Bengtson J, Chapin MD, Kohli N, et al. Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Urinary incontinence: guide to diagnosis and management. 2004. Boston MA, USA. http://www.brighamandwomens.org. 2004.
DuBeau CE. Clinical presentation and diagnosis of urinary incontinence. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Oct 2010. Accessed 05 Aug 2011.
Abrams P, Cardoza L, Khoury, et al. International Continence Society. Incontinence Vol 1: basics and evaluation. http://www.icsoffice.org. 2005.
Abrams P, Cardoza L, Khoury, et al. International Continence Society. Incontinence Vol 2: management. http://www.icsoffice.org. 2005.
Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of urinary incontinence in primary care: a national clinical guideline. SIGN. http://www.sign.ac.uk. Dec 2004.
Nadir N, Silverberg MA. Urinary incontinence. eMedicine. http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed 05 Aug 2011.
DuBeau CE. Treatment of urinary incontinence. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Oct 2010. Accessed 05 Aug 2011.
Rackley R, Vasavada SP, Ingber MS, et al. Urinary incontinence, nonsurgical therapies. eMedicine. http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed 05 Aug 2011.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Urinary incontinence. The management of urinary incontinence in women. Quick reference guide. NICE clinical guideline 40. NICE. http://www.nice.org.uk. Oct 2006.
Lucas MG, Bosch RJ, Burkhard FC, et al; European Association of Urology. EAU guidelines on surgical treatment of urinary incontinence. Eur Urol. 2012 Dec;62(6):1118-1129. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2012.09.023. Accessed 03 Feb 2014. PMID: 23040204
National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK). Urinary incontinence in neurological disease: management of lower urinary tract dysfunction in neurological disease. (NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 148). NICE. London: Royal College of Physicians (UK); 2012 Aug. Accessed 03 Feb 2014.
Bettez M, Tu LM, Carlson K, et al. 2012 update: guidelines for adult urinary incontinence collaborative consensus document for the Canadian Urological Association. Can Urol Assoc J. 2012 Oct;6(5):354-363. doi: 10.5489/cuaj.12248. PMID: 23093627
Lucas MG, Bedretdinova D, Bosch JLHR, et al. Guidelines on urinary incontinence. European Association of Urology. http://www.uroweb.org/gls/pdf/19_Urinary_Incontinence_LR.pdf. Mar 2013.
Burkhard FC, Lucas MC, Berghmans LC, et al. Guidelines on urinary incontinence. European Association of Urology (EAU). http://uroweb.org. Mar 2016. Accessed 18 Aug 2016.
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa,
08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.