Tuberculosis (TB) suspect is any one who has signs or symptoms suggestive of TB (eg >2 weeks productive cough).
Definite TB is considered in patients with culture or molecular line probe assay positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or in patients with at least 1 sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli.
TB cases are also classified based on the disease anatomical site, bacteriological results (including drug resistance), previous treatment history and patient's HIV status.
Pulmonary TB is a case of TB that involves the lung parenchyma.
Miliary TB is considered as PTB since lung lesions are also seen.
TB in the pleural effusion, mediastinal and/or hilar lymph nodes with no evidence of abnormalities in the chest x-ray are considered extrapulmonary TB.
Patients presenting with both PTB and extrapulmonary TB are classified as a case of PTB.
A shorter regimen comprising a seven-drug cocktail which included high-dose moxifloxacin for 9 months was noninferior to the WHO*-recommended long regimen of 20 months for treating rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (TB), according to the STREAM** study, providing a feasible and lower-cost treatment option in resource-poor setting.
Use of a short regimen in the treatment of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (TB) infection is noninferior to a long regimen in terms of efficacy and comparable with respect to safety, according to the results of the phase III STREAM* trial.
Metformin is the only medication among all types of antidiabetic therapy (ADT) and insulin therapies that lowers the risk of active tuberculosis (TB) in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population, a recent study has shown.
Dr Indumathi Venkatachalam, a consultant at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital, speaks to Roshini Claire Anthony on how GPs can help ensure early detection of tuberculosis (TB).
Treatment with metformin appears to significantly reduce tuberculosis (TB) risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a study has found. However, this protective effect diminishes with age and is absent among those with metabolic disorders.
Higher doses of rifampin result in more rapid sputum sterilization and similar toxicity, a study has shown. These findings support the investigation of increased rifampin doses to shorten tuberculosis treatment.
Individuals who have undergone gastrectomy for stomach cancer may have an added risk of developing tuberculosis (TB), according to a study from South Korea. However, this elevated risk does not appear to extend to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease.
Having a high initial effusion volume of >1,000 cc was associated with an increased need for surgical intervention after treatment with chest tube thoracostomy (CTT) in patients with loculated pleural effusion, according to a study presented at the APSR 2017 Congress.
Metformin may improve survival during tuberculosis (TB) treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus—a condition which particularly carries an increased risk of adverse TB treatment outcomes, a study has found.