Tuberculosis (TB) suspect is any one who has signs or symptoms suggestive of TB (eg >2 weeks productive cough).
Definite TB is considered in patients with culture or molecular line probe assay positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or in patients with at least 1 sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli.
TB cases are also classified based on the disease anatomical site, bacteriological results (including drug resistance), previous treatment history and patient's HIV status.
Pulmonary TB is a case of TB that involves the lung parenchyma.
Miliary TB is considered as PTB since lung lesions are also seen.
TB in the pleural effusion, mediastinal and/or hilar lymph nodes with no evidence of abnormalities in the chest x-ray are considered extrapulmonary TB.
Patients presenting with both PTB and extrapulmonary TB are classified as a case of PTB.
Treatment with metformin appears to significantly reduce tuberculosis (TB) risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a study has found. However, this protective effect diminishes with age and is absent among those with metabolic disorders.
Higher doses of rifampin result in more rapid sputum sterilization and similar toxicity, a study has shown. These findings support the investigation of increased rifampin doses to shorten tuberculosis treatment.
Individuals who have undergone gastrectomy for stomach cancer may have an added risk of developing tuberculosis (TB), according to a study from South Korea. However, this elevated risk does not appear to extend to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease.
Having a high initial effusion volume of >1,000 cc was associated with an increased need for surgical intervention after treatment with chest tube thoracostomy (CTT) in patients with loculated pleural effusion, according to a study presented at the APSR 2017 Congress.
Metformin may improve survival during tuberculosis (TB) treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus—a condition which particularly carries an increased risk of adverse TB treatment outcomes, a study has found.
Statins appear to have a dose-dependent association with the risk of tuberculosis (TB), with a nationwide population-based study showing that statin users have 47 percent lower incidence of TB compared with nonusers.
Patients treated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonists may be at a greater risk of tuberculosis (TB), although the biological mechanism underlying this association needs to be elucidated, according to a meta-analysis.
The airway microbiota is recently demonstrated to be associated with lung cancer via up-regulation of the ERK, PI3K and IL-17A signalling pathways, according to data presented at the recent European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress 2018.
Smoking marijuana may lead to cough, sputum production and wheezing, suggests a recent study with low-strength evidence. In addition, there is insufficient evidence supporting the association between marijuana use and obstructive lung disease.