tuberculosis%20-%20pulmonary%20(pediatric)
TUBERCULOSIS - PULMONARY (PEDIATRIC)
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a gram-positive bacteria with slow growth rate that is enhanced by 6-8% carbon dioxide and temperature of 35-40ºC.
It is primarily transmitted through airborne route.
The number of tubercle bacilli expelled in the air by a TB infected person is directly related to their infectiousness.
TB transmission is rare in children <10 years old due to their inability to expectorate sputum and low TB bacilli load in their sputum.
TB infection in children is usually obtained from an infectious adolescent or adult depending on the closeness and length of contact and the index case's severity of lung involvement and infectiousness.

Patient Education

  • Educate the patient, parents & caregivers about pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) & the importance of adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen
  • Consider referring patient for Daily Oral Treatment (DOT)
    • A treatment intervention where a patient’s actual intake of drugs is facilitated by a healthcare provider or a trained non-healthcare provider
    • Recommended to be performed in the community or in the patient’s residence rather than in a health-care center, clinic, hospital or any health-care establishments
  • Video-observed treatment (VOT) is an alternative to DOT
  • Patients have the benefit of availing one or more treatment adherence interventions [eg tracers (visits, calls,messaging), digital medication monitor, psychological counselling, material support (monetary incentives, food) & staff training] & choosing an accredited & convenient way of administering therapy
  • In patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), decentralized type is preferred over a centralized type
  • Instruct patients & parents regarding symptoms suggesting adverse drug reactions & advise them to seek assistance when these occur
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