Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a gram-positive bacteria with slow growth rate that is enhanced by 6-8% carbon dioxide and temperature of 35-40ºC.
It is primarily transmitted through airborne route.
The number of tubercle bacilli expelled in the air by a TB infected person is directly related to their infectiousness.
TB transmission is rare in children <10 years old due to their inability to expectorate sputum and low TB bacilli load in their sputum.
TB infection in children is usually obtained from an infectious adolescent or adult depending on the closeness and length of contact and the index case's severity of lung involvement and infectiousness.
Use of low-dose thalidomide in the adjunctive setting is beneficial in the treatment of paediatric patients who developed enlarging tuberculosis (TB) abscesses with a tolerable safety profile, a study has found.
The addition of lidocaine to intramuscular amikacin lessens pain immediately after injection in children with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB), according to a new study. In addition, coadministration of lidocaine does not alter amikacin area under the concentration time curve or maximum plasma concentration.
The use of shorter treatment regimens in children with tuberculosis (TB) infection leads to increased rates of completion and fewer adverse events when compared with 9 months of daily isoniazid treatment, a study has shown.
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Fetoscopic laser ablation (FLP) is an effective treatment for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in monochorionic twin pregnancies, but it requires a tertiary neonatal facility and a highly specialized team in performing intervention therapies for the treatment of potential complications, according to a Singapore study.
Serum folate levels during pregnancy correlate with the child’s neurodevelopment at 2 years of age, particularly in terms of language development, a recent study has shown. Folate supplementation may be a valuable nutritional intervention to consider.