Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a gram-positive bacteria with slow growth rate that is enhanced by 6-8% carbon dioxide and temperature of 35-40ºC.
It is primarily transmitted through airborne route.
The number of tubercle bacilli expelled in the air by a TB infected person is directly related to their infectiousness.
TB transmission is rare in children <10 years old due to their inability to expectorate sputum and low TB bacilli load in their sputum.
TB infection in children is usually obtained from an infectious adolescent or adult depending on the closeness and length of contact and the index case's severity of lung involvement and infectiousness.
The addition of lidocaine to intramuscular amikacin lessens pain immediately after injection in children with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB), according to a new study. In addition, coadministration of lidocaine does not alter amikacin area under the concentration time curve or maximum plasma concentration.
The use of shorter treatment regimens in children with tuberculosis (TB) infection leads to increased rates of completion and fewer adverse events when compared with 9 months of daily isoniazid treatment, a study has shown.
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Parenteral antibiotic therapy duration for bacteraemic urinary tract infection (UTI) in young infants may be safely shortened, according to a recent study showing that recurrence and readmission or emergency department revisitation rates are comparable between a ≤7-day and a longer therapy course.