Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a gram-positive bacteria with slow growth rate that is enhanced by 6-8% carbon dioxide and temperature of 35-40ºC.
It is primarily transmitted through airborne route.
The number of tubercle bacilli expelled in the air by a TB infected person is directly related to their infectiousness.
TB transmission is rare in children <10 years old due to their inability to expectorate sputum and low TB bacilli load in their sputum.
TB infection in children is usually obtained from an infectious adolescent or adult depending on the closeness and length of contact and the index case's severity of lung involvement and infectiousness.
In addition to the known evils of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the son’s semen quality, prenatal exposure to paternal smoking can also be harmful, according to data from the large Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) presented at the ESHRE 2019 Meeting.
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with kidney stone is worse in those who are young and female than those who are older and male, according to a recent study. Non-Caucasian patients also have a lower HRQoL.
In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), admission Killip classification and creatinine and troponin levels are important cardiac mortality predictors, according to a recent Singapore study.