tourette's%20syndrome%20-and-%20other%20tic%20disorders
TOURETTE'S SYNDROME & OTHER TIC DISORDERS
Tics are sudden, rapid, non-rhytmic, repetitive, motor movements or vocalizations. The mean age of onset is approximately 5 years old.
Tourette's syndrome is the most common form of tic disorder.
There is a strong genetic component showing a 10- to 100-fold increase in the rates of tics and Tourette's syndrome among first-degree relatives of Tourette's syndrome patients.
Simple motor tics are restricted to a single or a few muscle groups and last less than a fraction of a second.
Complex motor tics involve larger muscle groups, usually last longer and appear purposeful and goal-directed.

Tourette's%20syndrome%20-and-%20other%20tic%20disorders Signs and Symptoms

Definition

Tics

  • Sudden, rapid, non-rhythmic, repetitive, motor movements or vocalizations
  • Mean age of onset is approximately 5 years with peak severity occurring between 10-12 years of age and declining in many children during adolescence
  • There is a strong genetic component showing a 10- to 100- fold increase in the rates of tics & Tourette  syndrome (TS) among 1st-degree relatives of Tourette syndrome patients

Etiology

Primary Causes of Tic Disorders

Inherited Tic Disorders

  • Tourette syndrome (TS)
  • Huntington’s disease
  • Primary dystonia
  • Neuroacanthosis

Sporadic Tics

  • Transient motor or phonic tics (<1 year duration)
  • Chronic motor or phonic tics (>1 year duration)
  • Adult-onset (recurrent tics)
  • Tourette syndrome

Secondary Causes of Tic Disorders

Primary Neurologic Disorders

  • Head trauma
  • Stroke
  • Encephalitis
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Neurosyphilis
  • Sydenham’s chorea
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Down syndrome
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • Klinefelter’s syndrome
  • Chromosomal disorders
  • XYY karyotype
  • Duchenne’s disease
  • Hallervorden-Spatz disease
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Primary Neuropsychiatric Disorders

  • Mental retardation
  • Schizophrenia
  • Asperger’s syndrome/autism

Drugs Which May Induce or Worsen Tics

  • Stimulants (eg Methylphenidate, Amphetamines, Pemoline)
  • Cocaine
  • Antipsychotics
  • Antidepressants
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Antihistamines
  • Lithium
  • Opioids & opioid withdrawal
  • Levodopa

Other movement disorders that need to be ruled out:

  • Eg myoclonic movements, torsion dystonia, chorea, stereotypies
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
23 Apr 2018
Long‐term treatment with perampanel in the adjunctive setting appears to provide improved seizure control without raising new safety/tolerability signals in patients with epilepsy, particularly those with secondarily generalized seizures at baseline, according to the results of an open-label extension of phase III trials.
Audrey Abella, 20 Mar 2020
The addition of highly purified cannabidiol (CBD) into an antiepileptic regimen led to reductions in convulsive seizure rates in children with Dravet syndrome (DS), the GWPCARE2* study has shown.
27 May 2020
High rather than low levels of neonatal 25(OH)D3 pose an increased risk of incident epilepsy in early childhood, a finding that may be attributed to chance, confounding, or late gestational vitamin D exposure, according to a study.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 29 Jan 2020
In the treatment of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, switching from valproate to other antiepileptic drugs due to potential childbearing issues may prove detrimental, heightening the risk of poor seizure control, as shown in a recent study.