tourette's%20syndrome%20-and-%20other%20tic%20disorders
TOURETTE'S SYNDROME & OTHER TIC DISORDERS
Tics are sudden, rapid, non-rhytmic, repetitive, motor movements or vocalizations. The mean age of onset is approximately 5 years old.
Tourette's syndrome is the most common form of tic disorder.
There is a strong genetic component showing a 10- to 100-fold increase in the rates of tics and Tourette's syndrome among first-degree relatives of Tourette's syndrome patients.
Simple motor tics are restricted to a single or a few muscle groups and last less than a fraction of a second.
Complex motor tics involve larger muscle groups, usually last longer and appear purposeful and goal-directed.

Tourette's Syndrome & Other Tic Disorders References

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  2. Bloch M, State M, Pittenger C. Recent advances in Tourette syndrome. Curr Opin Neurol. 2011 Apr;24(2):119-125. PMID: 21386676
  3. Bestha DP, Jeevarakshagan S, Madaan V. Management of tics and Tourette's disorder: an update. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Aug;11(11):1813-1822. PMID: 20459362
  4. Cavanna AE, Eddy CM, Mitchell R, et al. An approach to deep brain stimulation for severe treatment-refractory Tourette syndrome: the UK perspective. Br J Neurosurg. 2011 Feb;25(1):38-44. PMID: 21158507
  5. Cath DC, Hedderly T, Ludolph AG, et al; ESSTS Guidelines Group. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part I: assessment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;20(4):155-171. doi: 10.1007/s00787-011-0164-6. PMID: 21445723
  6. Jankovic J. Tourette's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2001 Oct;345(16):1184-1192. PMID: 11642235
  7. Kurlan R. Tourette's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec;363(24):2332-2338. PMID: 21142535
  8. Marcus D, Kurlan R. Tics and its disorders. Neurol Clin. 2001 Aug;19(3):735-758. PMID: 11532652
  9. Leckman JF. Tourette's syndrome. Lancet. 2002 Nov;360(9345):1577-1586. PMID: 12443611
  10. Muller-Vahl KR. The treatment of Tourette's syndrome: current opinions. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2002 Jul;3(7):899-914. PMID: 12083990
  11. Rickards H. Republished review: Tourette's syndrome and other tic disorders. Postgrad Med J. 2011 Mar;87(1024):142-149. PMID: 21303820
  12. Roessner V, Plessen KJ, Rothenberger A, et al; ESSTS Guidelines Group. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part II: pharmacological treatment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;20(4):173-196. doi: 10.1007/s00787-011-0163-7. PMID: 21445724
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  16. Jankovic J. Tourette syndrome. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Feb 2019. Accessed 21 Sep 2015.
  17. Black KJ. Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/neuro/topic664.htm. Mar 2007
  18. Robertson W. Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. eMedicine. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1182258-overview#showall. Jun 2011. Accessed 15 Aug 2011
  19. American Psychiatric Association. Tic disorders. In: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013:81.
  20. Scahill L, Erenberg G, Berlin CM Jr, et al. Contemporary assessment and pharmacotherapy of tourette syndrome. NeuroRx. 2006 Apr;3(2):192-206. PMID: 16554257
  21. Verdellen C, van de Griendt J, Hartmann A, et al. European guidelines for tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III: behavioural and psychosocial interventions. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20(4):197-207. doi: 10.1007/s00787-011-0167-3. Accessed 24 Apr 2015. PMID: 21445725
  22. Porta M, Sassi M, Cavallazzi M, et al. Tourette’s syndrome and role of tetrabenazine: review and personal experience. Clin Drug Investig. 2008;28(7):443-459. PMID: 18544005
  23. Pringsheim T, Okun MS, Müller-Vahl K, et al. Practice guideline recommendations summary: treatment of tics in people with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders. Neurology. 2019 May;92(19):896-906. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000007466. PMID: 31061208
  24. Pringsheim T. Canadian guidelines for the evidence-based treatment of Tourette syndrome. http://www.bcmhsus.ca.
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