Tics are sudden, rapid, non-rhytmic, repetitive, motor movements or vocalizations. The mean age of onset is approximately 5 years old.
Tourette's syndrome is the most common form of tic disorder.
There is a strong genetic component showing a 10- to 100-fold increase
in the rates of tics and Tourette's syndrome among first-degree
relatives of Tourette's syndrome patients.
Simple motor tics are restricted to a single or a few muscle groups and last less than a fraction of a second.
Complex motor tics involve larger muscle groups, usually last longer and appear purposeful and goal-directed.
Tourette's Syndrome & Other Tic Disorders References
Bagheri MM, Kerbeshian J, Burd L. Recognition and management of Tourette's syndrome and tic disorders. Am Fam Physician. 1999 Apr;59(8):2263-2272, 2274. PMID: 10221310
Bloch M, State M, Pittenger C. Recent advances in Tourette syndrome. Curr Opin Neurol. 2011 Apr;24(2):119-125. PMID: 21386676
Bestha DP, Jeevarakshagan S, Madaan V. Management of tics and Tourette's disorder: an update. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Aug;11(11):1813-1822. PMID: 20459362
Cavanna AE, Eddy CM, Mitchell R, et al. An approach to deep brain stimulation for severe treatment-refractory Tourette syndrome: the UK perspective. Br J Neurosurg. 2011 Feb;25(1):38-44. PMID: 21158507
Cath DC, Hedderly T, Ludolph AG, et al; ESSTS Guidelines Group. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part I: assessment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;20(4):155-171. doi: 10.1007/s00787-011-0164-6. PMID: 21445723
Jankovic J. Tourette's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2001 Oct;345(16):1184-1192. PMID: 11642235
Kurlan R. Tourette's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec;363(24):2332-2338. PMID: 21142535
Marcus D, Kurlan R. Tics and its disorders. Neurol Clin. 2001 Aug;19(3):735-758. PMID: 11532652
Muller-Vahl KR. The treatment of Tourette's syndrome: current opinions. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2002 Jul;3(7):899-914. PMID: 12083990
Rickards H. Republished review: Tourette's syndrome and other tic disorders. Postgrad Med J. 2011 Mar;87(1024):142-149. PMID: 21303820
Roessner V, Plessen KJ, Rothenberger A, et al; ESSTS Guidelines Group. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part II: pharmacological treatment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;20(4):173-196. doi: 10.1007/s00787-011-0163-7. PMID: 21445724
Jankovic J. Tourette syndrome. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com. Feb 2019. Accessed 21 Sep 2015.
Black KJ. Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. eMedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/neuro/topic664.htm. Mar 2007
Robertson W. Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. eMedicine. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1182258-overview#showall. Jun 2011. Accessed 15 Aug 2011
American Psychiatric Association. Tic disorders. In: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013:81.
Scahill L, Erenberg G, Berlin CM Jr, et al. Contemporary assessment and pharmacotherapy of tourette syndrome. NeuroRx. 2006 Apr;3(2):192-206. PMID: 16554257
Verdellen C, van de Griendt J, Hartmann A, et al. European guidelines for tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III: behavioural and psychosocial interventions. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20(4):197-207. doi: 10.1007/s00787-011-0167-3. Accessed 24 Apr 2015. PMID: 21445725
Porta M, Sassi M, Cavallazzi M, et al. Tourette’s syndrome and role of tetrabenazine: review and personal experience. Clin Drug Investig. 2008;28(7):443-459. PMID: 18544005
Pringsheim T, Okun MS, Müller-Vahl K, et al. Practice guideline recommendations summary: treatment of tics in people with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders. Neurology. 2019 May;92(19):896-906. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000007466. PMID: 31061208
Pringsheim T. Canadian guidelines for the evidence-based treatment of Tourette syndrome. http://www.bcmhsus.ca.
A new combination product (AXS-07), which consists of the triptan rizatriptan and the NSAID* meloxicam, led to rapid and sustained pain relief than treatment with either component alone or placebo in patients with a history of inadequate response to prior acute migraine treatment, according to data from the MOMENTUM study released during the AAN 2020 Meeting.
While aducanumab significantly reduced clinical decline in individuals with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) in one randomized trial, no changes were seen in another identical study — rendering the role of aducanumab in AD inconclusive.