Vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency tied to peripheral arterial disease
Vitamin D levels are lower in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) compared with controls, and both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are significantly associated with PAD, according to the results of a meta-analysis. In addition, lower levels of vitamin D may signify an independent risk factor for PAD and for cardiovascular (CV) events.
The meta-analysis included 10 studies with available data on vitamin D levels in 2,079 patients with PAD and 18,233 non-PAD controls, and six studies on the prevalence of PAD in 23,171 patients with vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL), 48,311 with vitamin D insufficiency (20–30 ng/mL) and 27,910 with normal vitamin D levels (>30 ng/mL).
Patients with PAD, compared with controls, had significantly reduced vitamin D levels (mean difference, –2.24 ng/mL; 95 percent CI, –3.38 to –1.10; p<0.001; I2, 86.5 percent; p<0.001). PAD prevalence was also higher in patients with vitamin D insufficiency (odds ratio [OR], 1.098; 1.010–1.195; p=0.029; I2, 0 percent; p=0.600) and in those with vitamin D deficiency (OR, 1.484; 1.348–1.635; p<0.001; I2, 7.65 percent; p=0.367) vs controls with normal vitamin D levels.
Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses and the analysis of data on the cumulative risk of PAD according to vitamin D levels derived from multivariate analysis.
The authors systematically searched in the PubMed, Web of Sciences, Scopus and Embase databases, and performed a meta-analysis of studies evaluating the association between vitamin D status and PAD.
“Patients with vitamin D deficiency have increased CV morbidity and mortality,” the authors noted.