Vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency may increase risk of CV events
Both insufficiency and deficiency in vitamin D are linked to subclinical atherosclerosis, which potentially suggests an elevated cardiovascular (CV) risk, according to a recent study.
Researchers systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science Scopus and Embase databases for studies assessing the impact of vitamin D deficiency on common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) and prevalence of carotid plaques, which are markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and predictors of CV events.
A total of 21 studies (3,777 vitamin D-deficient patients and 4,792 controls) with data on CCA-IMT and six studies (1,889 vitamin D-deficient patients and 2,883 controls) on the prevalence of carotid plaques met the inclusion criteria.
There was significantly higher CCA-IMT (mean difference [MD], 0.043 mm; 95 percent CI, 0.030 to 0.056; p<0.001) and an increased prevalence of carotid plaques (odds ratio [OR], 2.29; 1.03 to 5.11; p=0.043) with an attributable risk of 35.9 percent among patients with vitamin D deficiency compared with controls.
When selecting for studies specifically including patients with diabetes, those with vitamin D deficiency showed higher prevalence of carotid plaques than controls (OR, 3.27; 1.62 to 6.62; p=0.001). There was a significant difference in CCA-IMT when comparing vitamin D-insufficient patients with controls (MD, 0.011; 0.010 to 0.012; p<0.001).
Results were substantially confirmed by sensitivity analyses, while regression models demonstrated that all of the other clinical and demographic covariates—with the exception of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia—significantly impacted on the difference in CCA-IMT between vitamin D-deficient patients and controls
Patients with vitamin D deficiency have an increased CV morbidity and mortality, according to researchers.