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Very-low-calorie ketogenic diets improve weight, metabolic parameters in obese patients

25 Jul 2020
The ketogenic diet (often known as keto) is a very low-carb, high-fat diet that shares many similarities with the Atkins and low-carb diets. Photo credit: Healthline

Very-low-calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) over a 45-day period are associated with substantial weight loss and significant improvements in metabolic parameters, a study has shown.

Whey- or vegetable protein-based VLCKDs show a safer profile and a more healthful microbiota composition as compared with those containing animal proteins. In addition, VLCKDs incorporating whey protein appear to be more effective in maintaining muscle performance.

“We compared the efficacy, safety, and effect of 45-day isocaloric VLCKDs … on the microbiota in patients with obesity and insulin resistance to test the hypothesis that protein source may modulate the response to VLCKD interventions,” the investigators said.

Forty-eight obese patients (aged 56.2±6.1 years; 29 females; body mass index [BMI], 35.9±4.1 kg/m2; homeostatic model assessment [HOMA] index ≥2.5) were randomized to three 45-day isocaloric VLCKD regimens (≤800 kcal/day) containing whey, plant, or animal protein.

The investigators evaluated the following factors: anthropometric indexes; blood and urine chemistry, including parameters of kidney, liver, glucose, and lipid metabolism; body composition; muscle strength; and taxonomic composition of the gut microbiome. They also recorded adverse events.

VLCKDs significantly reduced body weight, blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, insulin, HOMA index, and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in all patients. Improvement in muscle strength was more pronounced in those who consumed whey protein. However, renal function markers slightly worsened in patients who consumed animal protein.

After the consumption of VLCKDs, the relative abundance of Firmicutes decreased and of Bacteroidetes increased. Such trend was less pronounced in patients who consumed animal protein.

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Most Read Articles
30 Aug 2020
Diabetes bears an increased hazard of developing kidney cancer among postmenopausal women, but this association is only limited to those without obesity, a study has shown.
11 Jul 2020
Individuals who eat large amounts of vegetables and fruits, wheat, nuts, and dairy products are better protected against insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and excessive abdominal fat as compared with those who consume lots of fast foods, alcoholic beverages, and desserts—a dietary pattern described to promote metabolic abnormalities and disorders, as reported in a study.
22 Aug 2020
A weakened correlation between fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels may be indicative of obesity in type 2 diabetes patients, reports a new study.
29 Aug 2020
Sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT) 2 and 1/2 inhibitors help improve glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), reports a new meta-analysis.