Urinary incontinence a risk factor for upper urinary tract stones
Urinary incontinence is associated with higher risks of subsequent development of upper urinary tract stones, a new study reports.
Researchers reviewed the medical records of 1,777 patients with primary urinary incontinence. Data were drawn from the National Health Insurance Research Database, under the National Health Insurance Program of the Taiwanese government. Those who had existing urinary tract stones, and had spinal cord injury with either cauda equine syndrome or neurogenic bladder were excluded from the study. The minimum follow-up period was 8 years.
A total of 17,770 age-, sex-, and onset date-matched healthy controls were also included in the study. Necessarily, controls were clear of any prior history of urinary stones, urinary incontinence, and spinal cord injury. The controls were divided into three groups: control group A, whose metabolic syndrome statuses were not matched with the test group; control group B, whose metabolic syndrome statuses were matched; and control group C, whose metabolic syndrome status and X-ray exam status were matched.
From the analysis, it was found that the incidence of upper urinary tract stones was higher in the test group (18.8 percent) than in all three control groups (9.7, 10, and 10.5 percent in groups A, B, and C, respectively; all p<0.0001).
Even after controlling for metabolic syndrome, a possible confounding factor, the association between urinary incontinence and the risk of developing upper urinary tract stones was still significant (hazard ratio, 1.99; 95 percent CI, 1.76 to 2.26, p<0.0001).
Overall, the findings suggest that urinary incontinence is an independent risk factor for the subsequent development of upper urinary tract stones.