Third-trimester diet of mothers with GDM affect infant feeding behaviours
In women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), dietary pattern during the third trimester of pregnancy seem to affect the offspring’s appetitive feeding behaviours at 6 months, a recent study has found.
The study included 325 pregnant women (mean age at entry, 32.4±2.8 years) with GDM, in whom dietary patterns at 36 weeks’ gestation was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire was used to determine appetitive feeding at 6 months of age.
Most of the infants (61.5 percent) were predominantly or partially breastfed by 6 months of age, but not exclusively so. Nearly a quarter were fed only formula milk, while only 14.2 percent were exclusively breastfed. High enjoyment of milk and feeding was reported in 92.3 percent of infants, while 54.5 percent had generally good appetite.
Principal component analysis of FFQ responses revealed three dietary patterns: junk, primarily including sweets, alcohol, and snacks; mixed, which included root and other vegetables, nuts, and animal protein; and health-conscious, which mostly had fibre-rich food, fruits, and seafood.
Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for sex, weight-for-age, and maternal socioeconomic deprivation, revealed that increasing scores in the health-conscious dietary pattern correlated significantly with lower food enjoyment in male infants (p=0.0003), indicating better appetitive control, but not in females (p=0.70). Other dietary patterns had no impact on infant appetitive feeding at 6 months.
“Since the risk of obesity is increased in the offspring of women with GDM, appropriate dietary advice in pregnancy may be a potential target for intervention and public health recommendations,” the researchers said.