Snoring implicated in chronic kidney disease
Habitual snoring is strongly related to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in individuals with normal renal function, a prospective cohort study suggests.
A total of 9,062 individuals (mean age, 52 years; 48.2 percent male) living in rural or urban communities completed a self-reported sleep quality questionnaire. Snoring frequency was stratified as follows: <1 day/week (41.4 percent), ≥1 day/week (20.1 percent) and no snoring (38.5 percent).
There were more men than women in the high snoring frequency group. Individuals who snored more frequently tended to have higher waist-hip ratio (WHR) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and were more likely to be current smokers or alcohol drinkers. Moreover, comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular attack and metabolic syndrome were more prevalent in the group of individuals with high snoring frequency.
In terms of sleep quality, the likelihood of having insomnia, waking during the night, waking too early in the morning, having irregular sleep time, experiencing symptoms of restless legs syndrome and having periodic limb movements during sleep were similar in never snorers and snorers.
Over a mean follow-up of 8.9 years, CKD (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) developed in 264 (7.6 percent) individuals in the no-snoring group, 314 (8.4 percent) in the <1 day/week group and 186 (10.2 percent) in the ≥1 day/week group.
Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that the risk of developing CKD was more than 20-percent higher in individuals who snored ≥1 day/week than in nonsnorers (HR, 1.23, 95 percent CI, 1.09–1.38; p<0.01).
The findings indicate that self-reported snoring may be used as an early screening method for risk stratification of patients with CKD, according to researchers. However, more research is needed to establish whether introduction of interventions for snoring could decrease the risk of CKD development.