Smoking behaviours linked to metabolic syndrome
Smoking behaviours, such as the type of cigarette used and having a past history of the habit, appear to correlate with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, a recent study has found.
Drawing from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, the researchers identified 5,462 MetS cases and 12,194 controls. In the former group, 3,193 were non-smokers, 1,293 were ex-smokers, 893 were current smokers of conventional cigarettes, and 83 were currently using both conventional and electronic devices. In controls, the corresponding numbers were 8,182, 2,420, 1,432, and 160.
In women, the use of conventional cigarettes increased the likelihood of developing MetS (odds ratio [OR], 1.80, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.02–3.18). The same was true for the use of both conventional and electronic cigarettes (OR, 4.02, 95 percent CI, 1.48–10.93). This type of interaction was absent in men.
In contrast, smoking history had more of an effect in men. Having smoked for >25 to ≤37.5 pack-years increased the risk of MetS (OR, 1.45, 95 percent CI, 1.04–2.02), as did having a history of >37.5 to ≤50 (OR, 1.53, 95 percent CI, 1.08–2.18) and >50 (OR, 1.56, 95 percent CI, 1.07–2.27) pack-years of smoking. No such effect was observed in women.
Other habits also significantly affected the risk of MetS. High physical activity, for instance, cut the risk of MetS in both women (OR, 0.85, 95 percent CI, 0.78–0.94) and men (OR, 0.88, 95 percent CI, 0.80–0.98), while high-risk drinking increased it (men: OR, 1.89, 95 percent CI, 1.67–2.14; women: OR, 1.52, 95 percent CI, 1.21–1.91).