Salivary CSF-1 levels tied to periodontitis, age, manifest caries
Age, periodontitis, muscle and joint diseases, malignancies, smoking, and manifest caries are all factors that are associated significantly with salivary concentrations of colony stimulating factor (CSF)-1, a new study has shown.
Analysis of mean salivary CSF-1 levels in 441 individuals (mean age 48.5±16.8 years; 50.6 percent female) showed that females (873.7±677.6 pg/mL) and males (927.3±661.5 pg/mL) had comparable levels even after adjusting for total amount of protein.
In contrast, the level of salivary CSF-1 was significantly lower in smokers compared with nonsmokers (759.6±595.5 vs 928.8±682.2 pg/mL; p<0.05). The statistically significant difference disappeared after controlling for total amount of protein.
Participants were divided into three age groups: <40 years (n=150), 40 to 64 years (n=199) and >64 years (n=90). Those who were above 64 years had significantly higher CSF-1 levels than the other two age groups, even after adjusting for total protein amount. Age was also significantly positively associated with CSF-1 levels (p<0.001).
CSF-1 levels were significantly higher in participants with periodontitis than in those without (973.3±725.2 vs 802.1±532.9 pg/mL), even after adjusting for manifest caries. The significant association was lost after adjusting for total salivary protein.
Those with manifest caries lesions (MCL) ≥3 (1,158.2±964.5 pg/mL) had significantly greater salivary CSF-1 than those with one to two MCLs (945.0±641.5 pg/mL) and without MCL (852.2±626.2 pg/mL). Controlling for total salivary protein removed the significant association. MCL was significantly positively correlated with CSF-1 levels (p=0.001).
Finally, participants with tumours and muscle and joint pains had higher CSF-1 levels compared with those without the conditions. The differences did not reach statistical significance.