Risks of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure high in inflammatory bowel disease
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or heart failure, although the prevalence of traditional risk factors for such cardiovascular disorders appears to be low, as reported in a recent study.
A total of 736 IBD patients (339 with Crohn’s disease; 397 with ulcerative colitis) and 1,472 matched controls were followed for a total of 11,398 person-years and 17,880 person-years, respectively, for the development of AMI or heart failure.
On Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, IBD was independently associated with elevated risks of AMI (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.82; 95 percent CI, 1.98–4.04) and heart failure (aHR, 2.03; 1.36–3.03). The increase in the risk of these cardiovascular disorders was observed in both patients with Crohn’s disease (aHR vs controls, 2.89; 1.65–5.13) and ulcerative colitis (aHR vs controls, 2.70; 1.69–4.35).
When assessed separately, the risk of AMI was elevated in systemic corticosteroid users (aHR vs controls, 5.08; 3.00–8.81) and nonusers (aHR vs controls, 1.79; 1.08–2.98).
On the other hand, the risk of heart failure was significantly high in patients with ulcerative colitis (aHR, 2.06; 1.18–3.65) but not in those with Crohn’s disease, and in systemic corticosteroid users (aHR, 2.51; 1.93–4.57) but not in nonusers.
The present data should prompt close monitoring of IBD patients for the development of cardiovascular disorders, researchers said. Additional studies are needed to investigate whether controlling systemic inflammation could ultimately prevent AMI and heart failure in this population.