Reduced sleep efficiency linked to increased hypertension prevalence
Individuals with poor sleep efficiency are at greater odds of having elevated blood pressure, independent of sleep duration and body mass index (BMI), a recent study has found.
Researchers conducted a cross-sectional study involving 904 adults residing in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. They used a contactless biomotion sleep sensor to measure sleep efficiency for 10 continuous days.
A total of 294 participants (32.5 percent) had reduced sleep efficiency, while 331 (36.6 percent) had hypertension. Poor sleep efficiency was more prevalent in men (40.9 percent vs 28.8 percent in women), and those who did vs did not have the condition were more likely to have higher BMI (23.4 vs 22.3 kg/m2), shorter sleep duration (5.9 vs 6.4 h/day), higher urinary sodium/potassium ratio (4.4 vs 4.2), and higher prevalence of hypertension (44.9 percent vs 32.6 percent).
Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between reduced sleep efficiency and increased prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.62, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.15–2.28).
The observed association was consistent in subgroups defined by sleep duration (nonshort sleepers: OR, 1.43, 95 percent CI, 0.92–2.23; short sleepers: OR, 1.96, 95 percent CI, 1.23–3.13) and by BMI (nonobese: OR, 1.64, 95 percent CI, 1.11–2.42; obese: OR, 5.28, 95 percent CI, 2.95–9.45).
According to the researchers, individuals may improve sleep efficiency by making positive changes in lifestyle, including exercise habits. They believe that sleep efficiency may be an important target for hypertension prevention in the Japanese population.