Pro-inflammatory diet may increase risk of oral cancer
A pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by a higher score in the Energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII), is associated with an increased risk of oral cancer, according to a China study.
In this case-control study, the authors examined the role of the potential inflammatory effects of diet, measured using the E-DII, on oral cancer. A total of 295 oral cancer cases and 425 controls from September 2010 to June 2018 were included. Participants were from Fujian Province in China.
The E-DII was calculated based on food frequency questionnaires and adjusted by total energy intake. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between E-DII and the risk of oral cancer.
Participants with E-DII in the fourth quartile were shown to have a higher risk of oral cancer (odds ratio, 2.57, 95 percent CI, 1.54–4.29; p-trend=0.013) as compared with those in the lowest quartile. Analyses that used E-DII as a continuous variable revealed a 3-percent higher risk (1.00–1.06) of having oral cancer for each one-unit increase in the E-DII.
In addition, a significant interaction was observed between the E-DII and oral hygiene for oral cancer (OR for those without poor hygiene, 1.96, 0.96–4.00; OR for those with poor hygiene, 4.23, 1.83–9.81; p-interaction<0.001 for both).
“More large samples and prospective studies need to validate our results and explore the prevention strategies of oral cancer via changing dietary habits,” the authors said.