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Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose, insulin predict success of dietary weight loss

13 Aug 2017

A recent study suggests that elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) before treatment predicts a successful dietary weight loss and maintenance among overweight patients consuming diets with a low glycaemic load or with large amounts of fibre and whole grains, according to a study.

Researchers examined concentrations of FPG and fasting insulin (FI) as prognostic markers for successful weight loss and maintenance through diets with different glycaemic loads or different fibre and whole-grain content, assessed in three randomized trials (DiOGenes, SHOPUS and NUGENOB) of overweight participants.

Based on FPG before treatment, participants were classified as normoglycaemic (FPG <5.6 mmol/L), prediabetic (FPG 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) or diabetic (FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L). Linear mixed models were used to assess modifications of the dietary effects of FPG and FI before treatment.

In the DiOGenes trial, prediabetic participants regained a mean of 5.83 kg (95 percent CI, 3.34 to 8.32 kg; p<0.001) more on the high- than on the low-glycaemic load diet. On the other hand, normoglycaemic individuals regained a mean of 1.44 kg (0.48 to 2.41 kg; p=0.003) more (mean group difference, 4.39 kg; 1.76 to 7.02 kg; p=0.001).

In SHOPUS, prediabetic participants lost a mean of 6.04 kg (4.05 to 8.02 kg; p<0.001) more on the New Nordic Diet, which is high in fibre and whole grains, than on the control diet. However, normoglycaemic individuals lost a mean of 2.20 kg (1.21 to 3.18 kg; p<0.001) more (mean group difference, 3.84 kg; 1.62 to 6.06 kg; p=0.001).

In NUGENOB, diabetic participants lost a mean of 2.04 kg (‒0.20 to 4.28 kg; p=0.07) more on the high-fat and low-carbohydrates diet than on the low-fat and high-carbohydrate diet. On the other hand, normoglycaemic individuals lost a mean of 0.43 kg (0.03 to 0.83 kg; p=0.03) more on the low-fat and high-carbohydrate diet (mean group difference, 2.47 kg; 0.20 to 4.75 kg; p=0.03).

These associations were bolstered with the addition of FI, according to researchers.

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Most Read Articles
Pearl Toh, 13 Jan 2018
A study finds no evidence that using pharmaceutical aids alone for smoking cessation helps improve the chances of successful quitting despite promising results in previous randomized trials and routine prescription of such drugs to help quit smoking.
Elvira Manzano, 4 days ago
Cancer patients at risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) are less likely to experience recurrence with rivaroxaban compared with dalteparin, the Select-D trial has shown, ushering in a new standard of care (SoC) for cancer-related VTE.
Roshini Claire Anthony, Yesterday

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Tristan Manalac, Yesterday
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