Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose, insulin predict success of dietary weight loss
A recent study suggests that elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) before treatment predicts a successful dietary weight loss and maintenance among overweight patients consuming diets with a low glycaemic load or with large amounts of fibre and whole grains, according to a study.
Researchers examined concentrations of FPG and fasting insulin (FI) as prognostic markers for successful weight loss and maintenance through diets with different glycaemic loads or different fibre and whole-grain content, assessed in three randomized trials (DiOGenes, SHOPUS and NUGENOB) of overweight participants.
Based on FPG before treatment, participants were classified as normoglycaemic (FPG <5.6 mmol/L), prediabetic (FPG 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) or diabetic (FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L). Linear mixed models were used to assess modifications of the dietary effects of FPG and FI before treatment.
In the DiOGenes trial, prediabetic participants regained a mean of 5.83 kg (95 percent CI, 3.34 to 8.32 kg; p<0.001) more on the high- than on the low-glycaemic load diet. On the other hand, normoglycaemic individuals regained a mean of 1.44 kg (0.48 to 2.41 kg; p=0.003) more (mean group difference, 4.39 kg; 1.76 to 7.02 kg; p=0.001).
In SHOPUS, prediabetic participants lost a mean of 6.04 kg (4.05 to 8.02 kg; p<0.001) more on the New Nordic Diet, which is high in fibre and whole grains, than on the control diet. However, normoglycaemic individuals lost a mean of 2.20 kg (1.21 to 3.18 kg; p<0.001) more (mean group difference, 3.84 kg; 1.62 to 6.06 kg; p=0.001).
In NUGENOB, diabetic participants lost a mean of 2.04 kg (‒0.20 to 4.28 kg; p=0.07) more on the high-fat and low-carbohydrates diet than on the low-fat and high-carbohydrate diet. On the other hand, normoglycaemic individuals lost a mean of 0.43 kg (0.03 to 0.83 kg; p=0.03) more on the low-fat and high-carbohydrate diet (mean group difference, 2.47 kg; 0.20 to 4.75 kg; p=0.03).
These associations were bolstered with the addition of FI, according to researchers.