Pregnant women who follow recommended fat, fibre intake have richer gut microbiota
In pregnant women, adherence to recommended dietary intake of fat and fibre is associated with a more beneficial and richer gut microbiota which, in turn, decreases levels of the inflammation marker glycoprotein acetylation (GlycA), a study has shown.
Faecal samples were collected from 100 overweight or obese women in early pregnancy and were then used for DNA extraction. Dietary intake was recorded in food diaries a week before the study visit. Fasting blood samples were collected and used to assess GlycA and lipidomics.
Results showed that intakes of total fibre, soluble fibre and nonsoluble fibres were consistently and positively associated with the diversity and richness of the gut microbiota. In contrast, intake of fat and the different fat types was negatively associated with diversity and richness.
Of all the dietary nutrients, fibre and fat intake showed the most powerful correlations, with fibre being associated with an unknown family under the order Clostridiales and with the family Barnsiellaceae under the phylum Bacteroidetes. Fat intake was negatively correlated with Barnsiellaceae abundance.
Participants were then grouped into three according to adherence to the reference dietary intake: the low-fibre/moderate-fat group (n=57), the high-fibre/moderate-fat group (n=18) and the low-fibre/high-fat group (n=13).
After adjustments, women in the high-fibre/moderate-fat group had a significantly lower relative abundance of the Bacteroidaceae family compared with the low-fibre/high-fat group (25.6 vs 42.4 percent; p=0.001) and the low-fibre/moderate-fat group (25.6 vs 33.2 percent; p=0.002).
The Bacteroides genus was also likewise significantly lower in the high-fibre/moderate fat group than in the low-fibre//moderate fat and low-fibre/high-fat groups.