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Prediabetes, diabetes not associated with increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma

12 May 2019

Prediabetes or diabetes does not appear to increase the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, according to a recent study.

No increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma was identified among participants with prediabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95 percent CI, 0.79–1.44), diabetes (HR, 0.77; 0.46–1.29) or any of these exposures (HR, 0.96; 0.73–1.27) compared with normoglycaemic individuals.

Furthermore, stratified analyses or analyses separating cardia and noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma showed no associations between prediabetes or diabetes and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma.

In contrast, a previous meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies found an association between prediabetes and an increased risk of cancer, particularly liver, endometrial and stomach/colorectal cancer. [Diabetologia 2014;57:2261-2269]

Another study reported the association of diabetes and prediabetes with an increased risk of cancer mortality, especially death from liver cancer. Additionally, death from all cancers showed a linear rise with increasing glucose concentrations. [Diabetologia 2010;53:1867-1876]

The present study cohort included 111,198 participants in the Northern Swedish Health and Disease Study, who were followed from November 1985 to April 1987. Oral glucose tolerance tests and self-report were used to assess the exposure to prediabetes or diabetes.

The authors identified the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma from the Swedish Cancer Registry. They used multivariable Cox regression to analyse the associations between prediabetes or diabetes and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, with adjustments for sex, age, calendar year, body mass index, tobacco smoking and education level.

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