Oxidative stress hallmark of untreated coeliac disease
The oxidative stress profiles of coeliac disease (CD) patients who are nonresponsive or naïve to treatment are different from those who are responsive to intervention, according to a recent study.
Using electron paramagnetic resonance, researchers measured the plasmatic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in 54 CD patients, 17 of whom were treatment-naïve (N-CD; mean age 38.8±10.4 years), 18 were on a gluten-free diet (CD-GFD; mean age 43.1±10.2 years) and 19 were nonresponders (NRCD; mean age 49.3±16.6 years). Levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were also measured.
Plasmatic ROS production was significantly higher in N-CD and NRCD patients compared with CD-GFD patients (0.21±0.03 and 0.22±0.04 vs 0.17±0.03 µmol·min-1; p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Moreover, CD-GFD patients and healthy controls (n=100) had statistically similar levels of ROS production (0.17±0.03 vs 0.16±0.02 µmol·min-1).
On the other hand, plasmatic TAC levels in the N-CD and NRCD groups were significantly lower than in the CD-GFD group (1.07±0.30 and 1.16±0.47 vs 1.68±0.54 mM; p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Total glutathione levels were likewise significantly reduced in the N-CD and NRCD groups vs the CD-GFD group (534.40±37.46 and 507.80±81.73 vs 634.00±187.80 µmol·L-1; p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively).
Oxidative damage in plasma, as assessed by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, was significantly lower in CD-GFD vs N-CD and NRCD patients (2.82±0.47 vs 3.59±0.67 and 3.46±0.87 µM; p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). The same was true when oxidative damage was measured by protein carbonyl accumulation (0.91±0.20 vs 1.42±0.43 and 1.23±0.53 nmol·mg-1; p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively).