Obesity linked to irregular periods, PCOS in type 1 diabetes
Obesity is common among women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and may mess with the menstrual cycle as well as contribute to an increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), according to a study.
The analysis included 15,926 women (average age, 21 years), among whom 115 had T1D. Compared with nondiabetic controls, women with T1D had higher weight (median, 70 vs 64 kg) and body mass index (BMI; median, 25.5 vs 22.9 kg/m2), and greater prevalence of medical and psychiatric comorbidities.
Menstrual disorders were highly prevalent in both groups, with 47.8 percent of T1D patients and 40.3 percent of controls reporting menstrual irregularity at baseline. On the other hand, PCOS was significantly more prevalent in the T1D group (16.5 percent vs 5.5 percent).
Over 2 years, 3,220 controls and 31 women with T1D reported new menstrual irregularity. Incident cases of PCOS occurred in 899 and 11 women, respectively.
Log-binomial regression models showed that T1D conferred an increased risk of menstrual irregularity (risk ratio [RR], 1.22, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.46) and PCOS (RR, 2.41, 95 percent CI, 1.70–3.42).
Moreover, obesity was associated with about a fourfold higher risk of PCOS compared with normal BMI (RR, 3.93, 95 percent CI, 3.51–4.42).
The findings indicate that a high BMI in women with T1D may have adverse reproductive implications, according to researchers. This underscores a need for monitoring and prevention of weight gain in young women with T1D, especially those with high BMI.