Microbiological findings affect hyponatraemia incidence among children with respiratory infections
In children, the incidence rate of hyponatraemia differs according to the respiratory tract infection and the invading microorganism, a recent study has shown.
In 3,938 children (mean age 22.9±21.7 months; 55.7 percent male), 13.5 percent (n=531) had hyponatraemia. Majority had interstitial pneumonia (50.2 percent); 4.5 percent (n=177) had upper respiratory tract infections, 18.4 percent (n=724) had acute bronchiolitis and 24.6 (n=969) had acute bronchitis.
Hyponatraemia incidence varied significantly according to radiologic findings (p<0.0001), such that the condition was most common in children with upper respiratory tract infection (44.1 percent). In comparison, incidence was lowest in patients with acute bronchitis (10.5 percent) and acute bronchiolitis (9.7 percent).
Microbiological findings were also significantly associated with hyponatraemia (p=0.001). Children positive for two or three organisms demonstrated a higher hyponatraemia rate than those with monoinfections. In the hyponatraemia group, coinfections were significantly more common than in the no-condition group (p=0.001).
Multiple logistic regression analysis further showed that age (odds ratio [OR], 1.007; 95 percent CI, 1.002–1.012; p=0.006), the male sex (OR, 1.361; 1.105–1.675; p=0.004) and C-reactive protein levels (OR, 1.093; 1.060–1.128; p<0.0001) were all significantly associated with the development of hyponatraemia in children.
In comparison, coinfection with different organisms was strongly correlated, but achieved only borderline significance (OR, 3.493; 0.814–14.998; p=0.092).
In the present study, multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used on nasopharyngeal isolates for the detection of microorganisms. Other laboratory and radiologic information were collected upon study admission.