Mediterranean diet reduces risk of aggressive prostate cancer
The Mediterranean diet lowers the risk of aggressive cancer compared with the Western and Prudent dietary patterns, which have no effect on disease risk, a recent study has found.
Researchers reconstructed the Wester, Mediterranean and Prudent diets using the information of 2,031 adults enrolled in the Multicase-control Study in Common Tumours in Spain. In the sample, 754 developed prostate cancers and the remaining 1,277 were designated as controls. There were no significant differences in adherence to any diet between the groups.
Adherence to the Mediterranean diet showed an inverse relationship with prostate cancer, wherein those in the highest quartile of adherence had significantly lower risks of an aggressive disease relative to those in the lowest quartile, according to both the Gleason score (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR], 0.68; 95 percent CI, 0.46–1.01; p=0.023 for trend) and tumour extension (aRRR, 0.49; 0.25–0.95; p=0.024).
In contrast, high adherence to both the Western (aRRR, 1.11 for Gleason score; 0.75–1.65; p=0.535 for trend; aRRR, 1.56 for tumour extension; 0.81–3.02; p=0.164 for trend) and Prudent (aRRR, 0.78 for Gleason score; 0.54–1.14; p=0.215 for trend; aRR, 0.96 for tumour extension; 0.51–1.78; p=0.912 for trend) diets did not significantly impact the risk of prostate cancer.
“Our results show that the association between dietary patterns and PC risk differs by tumour aggressiveness, suggesting that high adherence to a Mediterranean diet could have a protective effect against more aggressive and more advanced PC,” said researchers, emphasizing the importance of considering whole diets, instead of individual foods, when giving nutritional recommendations.