Most Read Articles
6 days ago
Intravenous (IV) iron is less toxic and more effective compared to oral iron, making it a potential frontline therapy for neonatal iron deficiency anaemia, suggests a recent study.
Shilpa Kolhe, MBBS, MD, MRCOG; Shilpa Deb, MBBS, DGO, MRCOG, 01 Aug 2012

Dysmenorrhoea is a medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation manifesting as cyclical lower abdominal or pelvic pain, which may also radiate to the back and thighs. The term dysmenorrhoea is derived from the Greek words ‘dys’ meaning difficult, painful or abnormal, ‘meno’ meaning month, and ‘rrhea’ meaning flow. It is commonly divided into primary dysmenorrhoea, where there is no coexistent pathology, and secondary dysmenorrhoea where there is an identifiable pathological condition known to contribute to painful menstruation. Symptoms of primary dysmenorrhoea begin a few hours before the start of menstruation and are often relieved during the first few days of bleeding. The initial onset of primary dysmenorrhoea is usually shortly after menarche (6–12 months), when ovulatory cycles are established. Secondary dysmenorrhoea can also occur at any time after menarche but is most commonly observed in women in their third and fourth decade of life in association with an existing condition.

02 Dec 2014
Adolescent females often experience menstrual problems, and these are usually related to mood changes. In this study, the association between dysmenorrhea and depressive symptoms, anxiety, and premenstrual syndrome was examined.
26 Feb 2017
Placement of cervical pessary in women with short cervices and singleton pregnancies does not lower the risk of having preterm births, according to the results of a meta-analysis.

Low rate of DRMs, vertical transmission of HIV-1 among women treated with Option B+

14 Jul 2017
The 2012 WHO guidelines recommend the initiation of lifelong antiretroviral combination therapy for all pregnant HIV-1 positive women in resource-limited settings regardless of their CD4 count or clinical stage to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (Option B+). There has been some concern that such programmes may encourage the development of drug resistance mutations (DRMs), but a recent study has shown that the risk of drug resistance is low.

A total of 124 HIV-1 positive pregnant women in Fort Portal, Uganda, were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected at their first visit to the antenatal clinic before initiating Option B+ as well as at 6 weeks and 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Viral load was determined by real-time RT-PCR and analyses were also made of vertical transmission. A total of 49 women (39.5 percent) were also included in a DRM analysis. Virological failure was defined as >1,000 copies HIV-1 RNA/mL.

At 1-year postpartum, three women were found to have virological failure, and seven were affected by the 18-month time point. No vertical transmission of HIV-1 was noted among the 49 mother-infant pairs included in the DRM analysis. However, three women had developed DRMs, and two had dual-class resistance against all recommended first-line drugs.

The researchers suggested that their findings of a low DRM selection rate support the continued adoption of the Option B+ for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.
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Most Read Articles
6 days ago
Intravenous (IV) iron is less toxic and more effective compared to oral iron, making it a potential frontline therapy for neonatal iron deficiency anaemia, suggests a recent study.
Shilpa Kolhe, MBBS, MD, MRCOG; Shilpa Deb, MBBS, DGO, MRCOG, 01 Aug 2012

Dysmenorrhoea is a medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation manifesting as cyclical lower abdominal or pelvic pain, which may also radiate to the back and thighs. The term dysmenorrhoea is derived from the Greek words ‘dys’ meaning difficult, painful or abnormal, ‘meno’ meaning month, and ‘rrhea’ meaning flow. It is commonly divided into primary dysmenorrhoea, where there is no coexistent pathology, and secondary dysmenorrhoea where there is an identifiable pathological condition known to contribute to painful menstruation. Symptoms of primary dysmenorrhoea begin a few hours before the start of menstruation and are often relieved during the first few days of bleeding. The initial onset of primary dysmenorrhoea is usually shortly after menarche (6–12 months), when ovulatory cycles are established. Secondary dysmenorrhoea can also occur at any time after menarche but is most commonly observed in women in their third and fourth decade of life in association with an existing condition.

02 Dec 2014
Adolescent females often experience menstrual problems, and these are usually related to mood changes. In this study, the association between dysmenorrhea and depressive symptoms, anxiety, and premenstrual syndrome was examined.
26 Feb 2017
Placement of cervical pessary in women with short cervices and singleton pregnancies does not lower the risk of having preterm births, according to the results of a meta-analysis.