Low carbohydrate diet lowers risk of MetS, remnant cholesterol in prostate cancer

16 Nov 2021
Low carbohydrate diet lowers risk of MetS, remnant cholesterol in prostate cancer

A low carbohydrate diet (LCD) may substantially reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and remnant cholesterol in patients with prostate cancer, a recent study has shown.

In addition, LCD significantly reduces the estimated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using body mass index (BMI). By comparison, no difference is seen in estimated CVD risk using lipids.

A team of investigators analysed pooled data from two randomized trials testing LCD vs control on preventing insulin resistance after starting hormone therapy (CAPS1) and slowing prostate cancer growth in recurrent cases after a failed primary treatment (CAPS2). Both trials included a usual care control vs LCD intervention in which patients were instructed to limit carbohydrate intake to ≤20 gm/day and, in CAPS1, to walk for ≥30 minutes/day for ≥5 days/week.

Mixed models adjusting for trial were used to compare MetS components (ie, hypertension, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, central obesity, and diabetes), 10-year CVD risk estimated using the Framingham Score with either BMI or lipids, and remnant cholesterol.

LCD resulted in a significantly reduced risk of MetS (p=0.004) and remnant cholesterol (p<0.001). It also led to a markedly lower estimated risk of CVD using BMI (p=0.002), with no difference in estimated CVD risk using lipids (p=0.14).

However, the study was limited by its small sample size, short follow-up, and the inability to distinguish effects of carbohydrate restriction and weight loss.

“Long-term studies are needed to confirm this finding,” the investigators said.

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