Most Read Articles
Stephen Padilla, 25 Jul 2019
Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) appear to confer more clinical benefits to elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) than vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants (VKAs), suggests a study, adding that this is primarily driven by the lower rates of major bleeding.
12 Dec 2016

Associate Professor Ng Lee Ching, Director of the Environmental Health Institute (EHI) at the National Environment Agency (NEA), Singapore, speaks about the role of primary care physicians and government agencies in preventing dengue epidemics.

22 Aug 2018
In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) naïve to oral anticoagulants (OACs), standard-dose nonvitamin K antagonist OACs (NOACs) provides better survival benefits than warfarin, a recent meta-analysis has shown.
Stephen Padilla, 31 Aug 2018
Treatment with rivaroxaban results in less recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in frail patients with VTE, with similar good bleeding outcomes, compared with warfarin, reports a study.

Lithium exerts protective effect against melanoma and associated mortality

23 Jul 2017

Exposure to lithium yields a reduction in the risk of melanoma and associated mortality, according to a retrospective cohort study.

Researchers looked at a cohort of 2,213,848 adult white Kaiser Permanente Northern California members. Lithium exposure was identified in 11,317 adults with the use pharmacy databases and serum lithium levels obtained from electronic laboratory databases, while a total of 14,056 incident cutaneous melanomas were identified from an established cancer registry.

The incidence of melanoma was found to be 67.4 per 100,000 person-years in lithium-exposed individuals vs 92.5 per 100,000 person-years in unexposed individuals (p=0.027).

Lithium exposure reduced the risk of melanoma by 32 percent (crude hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95 percent CI, 0.51 to 0.90), but this risk-lowering benefit was attenuated and nonsignificant after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted HR, 0.77; 0.58 to 1.02).

At melanoma diagnosis, no lithium-exposed individuals presented with tumours thicker than 4 mm or advanced-stage disease. Furthermore, melanoma-associated mortality was better among lithium-exposed vs unexposed patients (mortality rate, 4.68 vs 7.21 per 1,000 person-years).

A malignant tumour of the skin developing from melanin-producing pigment cells known as melanocytes, melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer that has fatal consequences if diagnosed late. Previous reports indicate that external factors, genetic predisposition or both can cause damage to DNA in melanoma cells. [Cutis 2014;94:241-248]

The most important environmental risk factor for melanoma is UV radiation, both natural and artificial. Other factors associated with the skin cancer are skin type, ethnicity, number of melanocytic nevi, number and severity of sunburns, frequency and duration of UV exposure, geographic location, and level of awareness about malignant melanoma and its risk factors. [J Am Acad Dermatol 2011;64:655-662]

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Most Read Articles
Stephen Padilla, 25 Jul 2019
Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) appear to confer more clinical benefits to elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) than vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants (VKAs), suggests a study, adding that this is primarily driven by the lower rates of major bleeding.
12 Dec 2016

Associate Professor Ng Lee Ching, Director of the Environmental Health Institute (EHI) at the National Environment Agency (NEA), Singapore, speaks about the role of primary care physicians and government agencies in preventing dengue epidemics.

22 Aug 2018
In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) naïve to oral anticoagulants (OACs), standard-dose nonvitamin K antagonist OACs (NOACs) provides better survival benefits than warfarin, a recent meta-analysis has shown.
Stephen Padilla, 31 Aug 2018
Treatment with rivaroxaban results in less recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in frail patients with VTE, with similar good bleeding outcomes, compared with warfarin, reports a study.