Most Read Articles
19 Sep 2018
In advanced-stage, newly diagnosed classical, CD30-positive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), front-line therapy has resulted in durable remission rates in up to 70–90% of patients, although approximately 25–30% of advanced stage HL patients are refractory or relapse following first-line treatment with ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy.1–3 The standard of care for patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) classical HL is salvage therapy using second-line high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT), followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplant (ASCT) in eligible patients, which can induce a complete remission (CR) in about 50% of patients.4 Nevertheless, the prognosis of patients who relapse after the salvage HDCT/ASCT is exceedingly poor, with a median survival duration of approximately 1.2 years.5
09 Sep 2016
A German longitudinal study shows that Hodgkin’s lymphoma survivors experience acute and persistent fatigue regardless of tumour stage and treatment.
Natalia Reoutova, 16 Jul 2019
Reduced conditioning intensity is significantly associated with increased relapse, decreased disease-free survival (DFS), and decreased overall survival (OS) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients with measurable residual disease (MRD), a new analysis of a phase III randomized clinical trial has shown.
12 Oct 2016
Front-line treatment with rituximab plus high-dose sequential chemotherapy (R-HDS) with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) does not improve outcomes of high-risk patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, a study shows.

Liquid biopsy a promising tool for establishing diagnosis in GBM patients

Dr. Joseph Delano Fule Robles
17 May 2019

Liquid biopsy is demonstrated to be a quick, inexpensive diagnostic modality that can be performed multiple times to help establish a diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) without high-risk neurosurgical interventions.

GBM’s remarked intratumoural heterogeneity and diffuse infiltrative nature result in unfavourable clinical consequences.  [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013;110:4009-4014] Recent categorization of GBM based on gene expression profile as neural, proneural, mesenchymal or classic has made integration of histopathological findings and molecular alterations possible, leading to its possible utility in the clinics as prognostic and predictive markers. [J Biotechnol 2019;298:82-87; Cancer Cell 2010;17:510-522]

Liquid biopsy involves using serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine samples to detect tumour components such as extracellular vesicles (EVs), circulating cell-free coding and non-coding nucleic acids (cf-NAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). These components are involved in intercellular communication, tumour suppression and epigenetic regulation. [Non-coding RNA 2018, doi: 10.3390/ncrna5010001; Neuro Oncol 2015;17:343-360; Acta Neuropathol 2015;129:849-865]

Refinements during follow-ups and repeated sample collections may also be performed, as opposed to the traditional way of obtaining samples via surgical resection or biopsy. [Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2016;16:25; Cell 2016;120:635-647; Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2018;18:13]

cf-deoxyribonucleic acids (cf-DNAs) are 70-200 base pairs composed mainly of genomic DNA and are released during necrosis or apoptosis. EVs contain these nucleic acids and can be transferred intercellularly. Some cf-DNAs with known molecular alterations in GBM have been investigated, but their significance is still inconclusive. [Eur J Hum Genet 2018;26:937-945; Oncotarget 2016;7:65888-65901]

A number of miRNAs (miR-128 and miR-342-3p) function as tumour suppressors and are demonstrated to be downregulated in GBM patients. Downregulation of these miRNAs triggers angiogenesis, self-renewal, and proliferation of GBM cells by targeting p70s6k146, Bmi-147, E2F3a48 and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). [Int J Clin Exp Med 2015;8:456; J Mol Med 2009;87:43-51]

Overexpression of miR-221/222 and miR-454-3p in serum were demonstrated to be associated with low survival rates in GBM patients. [Curr Mol Med 2014;14:185-195; Neurol Sci 2015:36;309-313] Moreover, miR-21, miR-218, miR-193b, miR-331, and miR-374a were found to be overexpressed, while miR-548c, miR-520f, miR-27b, and miR-130b were downregulated in GBM CSF vs control CSF samples. [Oncotarget 2017;8:68769-68779]

lncRNAs are responsible for post-translational level gene expression and epigenetic regulation. Among these, HOTAIR, MALAT1 and GAS5 were demonstrated to be detectable in tumour and serum samples of GBM patients. [Genomics, Proteomics Bioinformatics 2016:14:42-54; Metab Brain Dis 2017;32:281-291]

Despite its significance and its possible clinical application, there is currently no consensus among experts as to what type of nucleic acids, biologic fluids or analytical technique would be worth investigating the most. [Clin Oncol 2017;14:531-548]

GBM is the most common primary malignant tumour of the brain, which makes up almost half of all cases of primary malignant central nervous system neoplasms. With its highest rate in individuals aged 75–84 years, poor median overall survival of 16–24 months and 5-year survival rate of 5.6 percent, it remains one the most fatal neoplastic disorder. [Neuro Oncol 2018;20(Suppl4);iv1-iv86]

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Most Read Articles
19 Sep 2018
In advanced-stage, newly diagnosed classical, CD30-positive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), front-line therapy has resulted in durable remission rates in up to 70–90% of patients, although approximately 25–30% of advanced stage HL patients are refractory or relapse following first-line treatment with ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy.1–3 The standard of care for patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) classical HL is salvage therapy using second-line high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT), followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplant (ASCT) in eligible patients, which can induce a complete remission (CR) in about 50% of patients.4 Nevertheless, the prognosis of patients who relapse after the salvage HDCT/ASCT is exceedingly poor, with a median survival duration of approximately 1.2 years.5
09 Sep 2016
A German longitudinal study shows that Hodgkin’s lymphoma survivors experience acute and persistent fatigue regardless of tumour stage and treatment.
Natalia Reoutova, 16 Jul 2019
Reduced conditioning intensity is significantly associated with increased relapse, decreased disease-free survival (DFS), and decreased overall survival (OS) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients with measurable residual disease (MRD), a new analysis of a phase III randomized clinical trial has shown.
12 Oct 2016
Front-line treatment with rituximab plus high-dose sequential chemotherapy (R-HDS) with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) does not improve outcomes of high-risk patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, a study shows.