Large for gestational age tied to higher cardiometabolic risks

17 May 2023
Large for gestational age tied to higher cardiometabolic risks

Individuals born large for gestational age (LGA) are more likely to develop obesity and metabolic syndrome later in life than those born appropriate for gestational age, suggests a study.

A team of investigators searched the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library to identify studies on LGA and outcomes of interest, such as body mass index, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipid profiles. Two reviewers independently extracted the data.

The investigators used a random-effects model to perform a meta-analysis. They also evaluated the quality and publication bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and funnel graph, respectively.

Forty-two studies, including a total of 841,325 individuals, met the eligibility criteria. Individuals born LGA had an increased likelihood of overweight and obesity (odds ratio [OR], 1.44, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.31‒1.59), type 1 diabetes (OR, 1.28, 95 percent CI, 1.15‒1.43), hypertension (OR, 1.23, 95 percent CI, 1.01‒1.51), and metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.43, 95 percent CI, 1.05‒1.96).

No significant difference was observed in hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia.

In stratified analyses, individuals born LGA were more likely to be overweight and obese from toddler age to puberty age (toddler age: OR, 2.12, 95 percent CI, 1.22‒3.70; preschool: OR, 1.81, 95 percent CI, 1.55‒2.12; school age: OR, 1.53, 95 percent CI, 1.09‒2.14; puberty: OR, 1.40, 95 percent CI, 1.11‒1.77) than those born appropriate for gestational age.

“Future studies should focus on elucidating the potential mechanisms and identifying risk factors,” the investigators said.

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