Inflammatory response involved in human anaplasmosis pathophysiology
Proinflammatory responses and immune dysfunction may play a role in the pathophysiology and severity of human anaplasmosis (HA), reveals a recent study.
The study included 80 HA patients (mean age 54.2±20.1 years; 62.5 percent male) and 1,000 healthy controls (mean age 64.3±11.3 years; 43.9 percent male). Concentrations of cytokines were measured in serum samples collected from the participants.
Levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ; 5.00 vs 0.571 pg/mL; p<0.0001), interleukin (IL)-10 (3.70 vs 1.055 pg/mL; p<0.0001), IL-12p70 (1.79 vs 0.297 pg/mL; p<0.0001), IL-1β (0.55 vs 0.101 pg/mL; p<0.0001), IL-8 (3.67 vs 1.707 pg/mL; p<0.0001), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; 2.89 vs 1.585 pg/mL; p<0.0001) and IL-6 (2.34 vs 0.849 pg/mL; p<0.0001) were significantly higher in HA patients than in controls.
Vomiting and diarrhoea were significantly associated with elevated levels of IL-13 and IL-5 (p≤0.023 for both), while thrombocytopoenia was correlated with higher levels of IL-10, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6 and IFN-γ (p≤0.031 for all).
IFN-γ, IL-12p70 and Il-2 were all significantly elevated in patients who were in the earliest stages of the disease and who were ill for at most 4 days (p≤0.048 for all). In contrast, those who were hospitalized had significantly higher concentrations of IL-19 and TNF-α (p≤0.036).
HA patients with morulae on blood smears also had significantly higher IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in the serum samples (p≤0.03). On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the serum cytokine levels between sexes or among age groups.