HIV worsens glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes patients
HIV-infected type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients appear to have worse glycaemic control than those without HIV, according to a recent study.
Researchers recruited 320 T2D patients, of whom 106 were HIV-positive (mean age 53.9±8.5 years; 63.5 percent female) and 214 were HIV-negative (mean age 59.7±9.83 years; 65.4 percent female). Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify significant factors associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. All HIV-positive participants were receiving antiretroviral therapy.
Patients who were HIV-positive had significantly higher glucose levels than their counterparts who were not infected (β, 0.044; p=0.015). The same was true for patients who were taking antihypertensive medications (β, 0.069; p=0.0006).
In comparison, HIV infection was negatively and significantly associated with HbA1c levels (β, –0.028; p=0.027), while body mass index (β, 0.003; p=0.007), glucose levels (β, 0.012; p<0.0005) and the use of statins (β, 0.030; p=0.002) were all positively associated with HbA1c.
When analysis was restricted to HIV-positive patients only, researchers found that blood glucose levels were significantly negatively correlated with CD4 cell counts (β, –0.0002; p=0.031), while HbA1c concentration was significantly associated with body mass index (β, 0.004; p=0.047) and blood glucose (β, 0.009; p=0.0005).
Notably, HIV status was not associated with the risk of albuminuria; significant risk factors included HbA1c levels (odds ratio [OR], 1.243; 95 percent CI, 1.117–1.383; p<0.005) and dyslipidaemia (OR, 1.942; 1.095–3.444; p=0.023). On the other hand, females were significantly less likely to develop albuminuria than males (OR, 0.523; 0.307–0.893; p=0.017).