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High serum vitamin D protects against renal dysfunction due to cadmium exposure

4 days ago
Kidney failures and organ donors: Singapore

High serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) appear to reduce the risk of renal tubular dysfunction in individuals exposed to cadmium, a recent study has shown.

The study included 133 adults born in two cadmium-polluted areas and one control area. Cadmium levels in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd) were measured, along with urinary β2Microglobulin (UBMG), urinary creatinine (UCr), urinary retinol binding protein (URBP) and serum 25(OH)D.

There was a significant and inverse association between serum 25(OH)D and UBMG and URBP (p<0.05). Participants with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥40 ng/mL were less likely to have renal dysfunction when either UBMG (odds ratio [OR], 0.20; 95 percent CI, 0.1–0.8) or URBP (OR, 0.28; 0.1–1.1) was used as indicators. Serum 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL was used as reference.

A similar trend was observed when analysis was restricted to participants with high UCd or BCd concentrations.

Using UBMG as a marker, researchers showed that those with UCd ≥3.0 µg/g Cr but serum 25(OH)D ≥40 ng/mL had significantly lower risks of renal dysfunction (OR, 0.23; 0.1–0.9). In participants with BCd ≥2.0 µg/L, high serum levels of 25(OH)D also correlated significantly with reduced UBMG (OR, 0.19; 0.1–0.8).

The trends for both high-UCd and high-BCd patients were similar when using URBP as an indicator of renal dysfunction, but the effects were not statistically significant.

“[T]he [protective] effects of vitamin D against cadmium-induced renal dysfunction may be due to its role on oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction,” said researchers.

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Most Read Articles
2 days ago
Higher intake levels of coffee appear to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic kidney disease, according to data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 13 Apr 2018
Taking 10 resting blood pressure (BP) readings daily for 2 days provides a reliable, stable representation of patients’ resting systolic (S)BP and diastolic (D)BP, according to a study. This approach shows that the current home BP monitoring protocol of twice-daily readings for 4–7 days may be trimmed down to just 48 hours.
Pearl Toh, 12 Apr 2018
A smartwatch photoplethysmography coupled with a mobile application using a machine learning algorithm can passively and accurately detect atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients undergoing cardioversion, albeit with less accuracy in ambulatory individuals with self-reported AF, a proof-of-concept study shows.
Pearl Toh, 13 Apr 2018
Impaired endothelial-dependent microvascular reactivity appears to be predictive of albuminuria progression in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who have normal urine albumin levels at baseline, but not in those with microalbuminuria, a prospective longitudinal cohort study suggests.