High serum copper-to-zinc ratio improves HF risk prediction in middle-aged, older men
Increased serum copper-to-zinc (Cu/Zn) ratio is linked to a higher risk of heart failure (HF) among middle-aged and older men, having the potential to improve HF risk assessment, as suggested in a study.
Researchers enrolled 1,866 men aged 42–61 years from eastern Finland who had no history of HF at baseline. They measured serum levels of Cu and Zn using atomic absorption spectrometry. For the analysis, factors such as total energy intake, intake of fruits, berries and vegetables, and red meat were included as potential confounders.
Over a median follow-up of 26.5 years, a total of 365 HF cases occurred. Restricted cubic splines showed serum Cu/Zn-ratio, Cu, and Zn to have linear associations with HF risk. Every one-unit increase in Cu/Zn-ratio was associated with a 63-percent increased HF risk in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.06–2.51).
Likewise, HF risk was positively associated with serum Cu (HR, 2.42, 95 percent CI, 1.32–4.44) and serum Zn (HR, 1.34, 95 percent CI, 0.50–3.63).
When integrated to a HF risk prediction model, Cu/Zn-ratio improved the risk assessment for HF.
The findings suggest that serum Cu and Zn may play a role in the development of adverse cardiovascular outcomes including HF, according to the researchers.