High Mediterranean dietary pattern intake lowers aggressive prostate cancer risk
Adoption of a Mediterranean dietary pattern may reduce the risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer, according to a population-based multicase-control study. Western and Prudent dietary patterns, on the other hand, are not associated with prostate cancer risk.
Researchers examined anthropometric, epidemiologic and dietary data from 754 prostate cancer patients and 1,277 controls aged between 38 and 85 years. They evaluated prostate cancer risk by tumour aggressiveness (Gleason score grade, 6 vs >6) and extension (cT1 to cT2a vs cT2b to cT4) in relation to three dietary patterns—Western, Prudent and Mediterranean.
In multinomial regression models, high adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern—which is rich in fruits and vegetables, as well as includes fish, legumes and olive oil—was associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer with high-grade tumour or with higher clinical stage.
Compared with the first quartile of Mediterranean dietary pattern intake, the fourth quartile yielded a relative risk ratio of 0.68 (95 percent CI, 0.46 to 1.01; p=0.023 for trend) for prostate cancer with Gleason score >6 and of 0.49 (0.25 to 0.96; p=0.024 for trend) for prostate cancer with higher clinical stage.
Prudent pattern—which combines vegetables and fruits with low fat dairy products, whole grains and juices—and Western pattern had no effect on prostate cancer risk.
Findings of the present study highlight that nutritional recommendations for prostate cancer prevention should consider whole dietary patterns instead of individual foods, researchers said.