High-fat diet plus fructose, but not glucose, increases hepatic fat content
There appears to be a varying immediate impact of fructose and glucose on hepatic fat content (HFC) in humans in vivo, results of a recent study have shown.
Participants who consumed a high-fat load alone or a high-fat load with fructose increased their HFC to 119±19 percent (p<0.05) and 117±17 percent (p<0.01) of baseline, respectively. On the other hand, coadministration of glucose with a high-fat load did not affect HFC.
Furthermore, fasting or consuming repeated doses of fructose did not have any impact on HFC. When participants were administered three doses of glucose, HFC decreased to 85±13 percent (p<0.05) of baseline.
In this study, the investigators explored how the administration of high-fat load, glucose, fructose and combination thereof affected HFC measured in vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in healthy individuals.
A total of 10 nonsteatotic male volunteers (mean age, 38.5±9.6 years; mean body mass index, 26.9±2.7 kg/m2) participated randomly in six experiments that lasted 8 hours each: fasting; a high-fat load, 150 g of fat (dairy cream) at time 0; glucose, three doses of 50 g at 0, 2 and 4 hours; a high-fat load with glucose; fructose, three doses of 50 g at 0, 2 and 4 hours; and a high-fat load with fructose.
1H-MRS was used to measure HFC prior to test meal administration (before time 0) and at 3 and 6 hours. Glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids and plasma concentrations of triglycerides were monitored throughout each experiment.
“Diets rich in fat and added sugars (especially fructose) play an important role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic liver disease, but there is only limited information on the acute effects of these nutrients on HFC,” the investigators said.