High dietary inflammatory index tied to increased cancer risk
A significant association exists between higher dietary inflammatory index (DII) and risk of cancer, according to the results of a recent dose-response meta-analysis.
A total of 44 high-quality studies (n=1,082,092 participants) were included. An elevated DII (continuous–relative risk [RR], 1.13; 95 percent CI, 1.09–1.16; category DIIhighest vs lowest–RR, 1.58; 1.45–1.72) was independently associated with higher cancer risk, except for lung cancer and Australian studies.
There was a linear dose-response relation between DII and overall risk of cancer, with an 8.3-percent increase in cancer risk per DII score. The pooled RR of DII and cancer risk was 1.86 (1.63–2.13) from 30 case-control studies and 1.29 (1.19–1.40) from 14 prospective cohorts.
These findings were supported by both sensitivity analysis and Egger’s test.
The investigators conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to examine the association between DII and cancer incidence. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane library were systematically searched up to 5 November 2017.
After extracting data, the investigators calculated pooled RRs and performed dose-response analyses using a restricted cubic spline model with 4 knots. They also performed subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses and tests for publication bias.
“More prospective studies with large sample sizes, involving more ethnic groups and different cancer types, are required in the future,” the investigators said.
“A newly developed DII to evaluate the inflammatory potential of diets was published recently. Many studies have investigated the link between diet-related inflammation and human cancer risk, but the results remain controversial,” they noted.