High BMI might promote MGUS progression to multiple myeloma

17 May 2022
High BMI might promote MGUS progression to multiple myeloma

In individuals with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), obesity or high body mass index (BMI) seems to aggravate the risk of disease progression to multiple myeloma (MM), an effect that appears to be stronger in women, a recent study has found.

The study included 488 MGUS patients, of whom 324 were nonprogressing while 164 progressed to MM. Patient-reported measurements were used to calculate BMI. Overall, most patients were of normal BMI, though a total of 114 had BMI ≥30 kg/m2.

Compared to those who had BMI <25 kg/m2, the risk of progression to MM was elevated, though not significantly so, in patients with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.24, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.59–2.60). Such an effect was driven by the excess progression risk in patients with BMI ≥35 kg/m2 (OR, 2.04, 95 percent CI, 0.72–5.83).

However, when BMI was taken as a continuous variable, each 5-kg/m2 increase correlated with a 35-percent jump in the likelihood of MGUS progression to MM (OR, 1.35, 95 percent CI, 1.03–1.77).

Of note, the link between continuous BMI and progression to MM was stronger in women (OR, 1.51, 95 percent CI, 0.97–2.34) than in men (OR, 1.29, 95 percent CI, 0.89–1.87).

“Given limited knowledge regarding modifiable factors associated with MGUS progression, these findings, if replicated in larger future studies, may have implications for clinical management and risk prediction and stratification among MGUS patients,” the researchers said.

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