Galectin-3 may predict cognitive decline in T2DM
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), galectin-3 (gal3) levels may be an indicator of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a new study has shown.
In a sample of 134 hospitalized T2DM patients, 65 (mean age, 69.62±6.53 years; 46.2 percent female) had MCI, which was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool. The remaining 69 (mean age, 68.35±5.62 years; 46.4 percent female) were set as controls. Fasting blood samples were collected and processed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the measurement of gal3.
In the MCI group, MoCA scores were significantly but negatively correlated with gal3 levels (r, –0.47; p<0.001). The same was true for results in the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE; r, –0,51, p<0.01). Other significant negative predictors of both measures were glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
In contrast, both MoCA and MMSE scores of the MCI patients were positively correlated with amyloid-β42 in the plasma. Blood biomarkers were unrelated to MoCA scores in controls.
Simple logistic regression confirmed that gal3 was a significant and independent risk factor for developing MCI in T2DM patients (odds ratio [OR], 5.45, 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 2.10–6.64), as was amyloid-β42 concentration (OR, 1.76, 95 percent CI, 1.27–1.94).
“We recommend large-scale multicentre studies to assess the clinical application of Gal3 as an independently novel biomarker for MCI T2DM patients,” said researchers. “Whether Gal3 is simply a disease biomarker or is also a mediator of the development and progression of diabetic cognitive impairment warrants further investigation.”